Primary Outcomes (explanation)
We group outcome indicators into nine indices of health and social outcomes, with each index standardized so the control group (all-female, no education group) has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. For each index we follow the method employed by Kling, Liebman and Katz (2007).
Where relevant, incorrect answers (not specified here) are assigned the value 0, and un-answered survey questions are coded as missing.
Health knowledge and behavior:
(1) Malaria knowledge score, 3 components: Q1: What causes malaria? =1 if respondent lists "mosquito bites" only; Q2: How does one protect him/herself from getting malaria? =1 if respondent lists "sleeping under ITN" only; Q3: Which two groups of people are most vulnerable to the effects of Malaria? =1 if respondent lists both "young children" and "pregnant women" only.
(2) HIV/AIDS knowledge score, 8 components: All questions take the value 1 if respondent answers "Yes." Q1: Have you heard of AIDS? Q2: In the last few months, have you heard or seen any messages on HIV/AIDS? Q3: Do you personally know someone who is suspected to have the AIDS virus or who has the AIDS virus? Q5: Can people reduce their chances of getting the AIDS virus by using a condom every time they have sex? Q6: Can people reduce their chance of getting the AIDS virus by abstaining from sexual intercourse? Q7: Are there any special medications that people infected with the AIDS virus can get from a doctor or nurse? Q8: Do you know where people can go to get tested for the virus that causes AIDS? Q8: Do you know where to get condoms?
(3) IMCI knowledge score, 7 components: Q1: What are the critical danger signs of serious illness in children 2 months to 5 years of age? 1 point for each correct answer, up to 6; Q2: How much liquid should you give a child with diarrhea? =1 if respondent selects "more than usual"; Q3: When a child has diarrhea, what symptoms indicate that you should take him/her for medical care? 1 point for each correct answer, up to 8; Q4: When a child has a cough, what symptoms indicate that you should take him/her for medical care? 1 point for each correct answer, up to 10; Q5: How do you know a child has malaria? =1 if respondent lists "fever"; Q6: If a child has a fever, how would you recommend that child be treated at home? 1 point for each correct answer, up to 5; Q7: What actions should a doctor/nurse take when assessing the health of your child? 1 point for each correct answer, up to 10.
(4) Bednet behavior score, 5 components: Q1: Number of installed bednets in household; Q2: Proportion of household members under age five who slept under a net the previous night; Q3: Household has a net, 1 year or newer; Q4: Household has an installed net, 1 year or newer; Q5: Household has a net treated within the past year
(5) HIV/AIDS behavior score, 3 components: All questions take the value 1 if respondent answers "Yes." Q1: Have you spoken with your husband/companion about ways to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS?; Q2: The last time you had sexual intercourse, was a condom used?; Q3: If you wanted to, could you yourself get a condom?
(6) IMCI behavior score, 2 components: Q1: Respondent has given Orasel or other oral rehydration salts to a child to treat diarrhea; Q2: Respondent sought treatment within 3 days for a child who had fever during the previous month
(1) Empowerment score, 8 components: Q1: Participates in decisions about children's school attendance; Q2: Participates in decisions about children's membership in groups; Q3: Participates in buying and selling decisions for the household; Q4: Participates in decisions about working outside the household; Q5: How often do conflicts with your spouse lead to a) verbal abuse, b) physical abuse, or c) physical abuse against children? For each of a, b and c, 0=often, 1=sometimes, 2=rarely, 3=never. Combined score: 0=often to 9=never; Q6: Ability to go out to a) the market, b) the health center, c) walk with friends, d) the religious center? For each of a, b, c, d, 0=never, 1=cannot when alone, 2=can when alone. Combined score: 0=never to 8=always able to travel alone; Q7: Views on women’s empowerment: a) Decisions in the family should be taken by men, b) If a woman works outside the home, then the husband should help with household chores, c) A married woman must be able to work outside the home if she wishes, d) A married woman should be allowed to express her opinion even when she disagrees with her husband, e) A woman should accept beatings by her husband in order to preserve the unity of the family, f) It is better to send boys to school than girls. For b, c, d, Yes=2, No=0, Depends=1, and for a, e, and f, Yes=0, No=2, Depends=1. Combined score: 0=low empowerment, 12=high empowerment; Q8: Frequency of voting: 0=never, 1=sometimes, 2=always
(2) Social network score, 3 components: Q1: Number of matched respondents who have given economic support, out of 10; Q2: Number of matched respondents she could ask for small money, out of 10; Q3: Number of matched respondents she would lend small money, out of 10
(3) Social capital score, 6 components: Q1: Number of community groups that the respondent belongs to; Q2: Number of groups from whom the respondent got economic support in the last 12 months; Q3: Number of groups from whom the respondent got advice in the last 12 months; Q4: Has spoken out in a community meeting in last 12 months; Q5: Has run for or held an elected community position or office in last 12 months; Q6: Feels at least somewhat influential in changing her village