Impact of an educational campaign on pharmacists' beliefs and irresponsible dispensing of antimicrobials.

Last registered on April 18, 2022


Trial Information

General Information

Impact of an educational campaign on pharmacists' beliefs and irresponsible dispensing of antimicrobials.
Initial registration date
April 17, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
April 20, 2021, 6:31 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
April 18, 2022, 8:05 PM EDT

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
This trial evaluates an educational intervention carried out on medical store workers in Bihar, India. Over 670 medical store workers were surveyed to evaluate their knowledge on correct drug dispensing protocols and their beliefs on antimicrobial resistance as a public health threat. Randomly selected workers received an informational intervention consisting of the recommended WHO`s dispensing protocol, statistics on antibiotic resistance prevalence and its consequences in India and a reminder of the legal status of unnecessary antibiotics dispensing.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Zarate, Pablo. 2022. "Impact of an educational campaign on pharmacists' beliefs and irresponsible dispensing of antimicrobials.." AEA RCT Registry. April 18.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Define AMR, Define Antibiotics, Dispensing Index, Pharmacist Responsibility, Deny ABs, Relation AB and ABR, Feel Knowledgeable, Take Time, Importance AMR, Check Prescription, Partial Dose, Demand Antibiotics Valid Prescription
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Medical stores in those cities participated in up to three stages: a baseline, an intervention and an endline. India has the particular characteristic of having multiple recognized traditional systems of medicines, like Ayurveda, Siddha, or Homoeopathy (Ravishankar and Shukla, 2007), which do not rely on allopathic medications, such as Antibiotics. However, rather than excluding stores based on their marketing or names, the inclusion criteria for a medical store (worker) to participate in our study included a) the presence of antibiotics for sale in the store at the moment the baseline survey was conducted and b) acknowledgement by the workers at the pharmacy that the
survey respondent was (one of) the de facto dispenser(s) of antibiotics in the store, regardless of quali cations.
Out of the 670 workers ocially surveyed in the baseline, we randomly divided our sample into two sub-groups: those who were to receive our intervention (treatment group) and those who would not (control group). Given our effective 1-to-1 mapping of medical store and pharmacist, our randomization at an individual level is equivalent to a randomization at a shop level.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
Medical Store
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
700 medical stores
Sample size: planned number of observations
700 medical stores
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
350 medical stores receive the educational Intervention, 350 medical stores are control
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Ethikkommission University Göttingen
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials