In response to COVID-19, a third of social protection measures have taken the form of cash transfers reaching more than 1.1 billion people --- a 240% increase in coverage from pre-COVID levels. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, direct cash transfers are an effective tool to protect vulnerable households. We conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a targeted cash transfer program implemented in rural Togo between November 2020 and May 2021. In collaboration with GiveDirectly, the government of Togo secured sufficient funding to provide benefits to roughly 57,000 of the approximately 580,000 citizens living in the poorest 100 cantons. Using mobile phone and satellite data, we identified the poorest cantons and poorest people living in them. We randomized the beneficiaries among the poorest phone owners. After registration, every month and for five months, eligible women receive a cash transfer of 8,620 F CFA ($15.5 US) and eligible men, a transfer of 7,450 F CFA ($13.5 US). We conduct a telephone survey at the end of the intervention to measure a wide range of outcomes, including consumption, food security, labor supply, access to health care, education, psychological well-being, financial inclusion and the perception of poverty. We also have access to administrative data of mobile phone companies in Togo, which will allow us to exploit phone usage behaviors and build other types of outcomes, such as adoption and use of the mobile money services, migration or predicted poverty.