Experimental Design Details

There are 2 main stages in the experiment.

The first stage is the identity dimension priming stage: the priming is done through asking participants to consider and choose their standing on a general statement on religion or/and limited government. In the one-dimension treatment, they are only asked about one (random) statement. In the two-dimension treatment, they are asked about both statements in a random order, and the order will be kept throughout the experiment. Participants will then be shown the groups they belong to based on their choices, with graphic symbols for each group, which will further prime their identities.

The second stage is a third-party allocation task aiming to elicit participants’ strength of identities in an incentivized way. Participants will decide how to allocate a number of credits between 2 randomly selected other participants in the following manner. Firstly, they will be asked how they would like to allocate the credits in 3 different cases: 1) if one of the two selected participants has the same identity as theirs while the other has the opposite identity on the salient dimension; 2) both have the same identity and 3) both have the opposite identity. In the two-dimension treatment, in each case, a statement and graphic will highlight that on the other dimension of identity, the participant might have the same or opposite identity.

Then, they will be asked whether they would like to make the allocation based on their decisions, to equally divide the credits, or to randomly divide the credits between the two participants. For those in the two-dimension treatment, they will then be asked the same questions on the second dimension. Each participant’s decisions will be used to determine the payoffs of two randomly selected other participants. For those in the two-dimension treatments, one set of decisions will be randomly selected to be implemented.

Finally, after the second stage, we will have a post-experiment questionnaire. Those in the one-dimension treatment will be given and asked about the statement on the other dimension. The questionnaire will include questions on their strength of identities, (incentivized) beliefs about the distribution of and the correlation between identities on both dimensions, understanding and other standard demographic variables like birthyear, gender, education level, state currently living in, race, personal income, and percentage of personal income to household income.

At the end of the study, participants will be required to provide their Prolific ID. They will be credited with their payoff after the study is complete and payoffs are calculated given random matching.

More detail is provided in the attached Analysis Plan.