Evaluation of Demand-led Vocational Training Programs in Pakistan

Last registered on July 01, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

Evaluation of Demand-led Vocational Training Programs in Pakistan
Initial registration date
July 01, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
July 01, 2021, 8:31 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


Primary Investigator

University of Mannheim

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Center for Evaluation and Development (C4ED)
PI Affiliation
Center for Evaluation and Development (C4ED)

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
The traditional TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) sector in Pakistan has a variety of different training programs. However, many graduates do not find long-term employment. One major reason for this seems to be an imbalance between the jobs and skills in demand on the labor market and the programs offered by the training institutions. Within this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of a demand-led TVET program in Badin and Kashmore in adapting learners’ employment expectations and increasing the likelihood of long-term employment. The program was designed based on a market needs assessment and as such answers the need of more market-oriented training programs. This makes it a promising alternative to traditional programs, which is likely to generate better employment outcomes at a similar cost.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Avdeenko, Alexandra, Laura Montenbruck and Matthias Stelter. 2021. "Evaluation of Demand-led Vocational Training Programs in Pakistan." AEA RCT Registry. July 01. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.7910-1.0
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Experimental Details


The intervention is implemented at the individual level. Individuals are randomly chosen for one of six training sectors: advanced mobile repairing and software, beautician, computerized accounting, electrician and plumber, mobile repairing, or tailoring. The respective sectors have been selected based on a market needs assessment prior to the intervention’s start.

Individuals in the treatment group participate in a pre-internship and, unless they disqualify due to low attendance rates, continue to the training phase afterwards.

We will collect post-intervention data via a phone follow up survey and hence expect some attrition. This will be illustrated and handled appropriately.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
- TVET training indicator (Have you ever completed or are currently attending a technical or vocational training such as auto or engine mechanics, carpentry, typing, computer, tailoring etc.?)
- Employment 1 (How would describe your (main) activity in the last 3 months? If employed: type of employment)
- Employment 2 (Did you do any work for pay, profit or family gain during last week, at least for one hour on any day?)
- Hours worked last week (If worked last week: In total, how many hours did you work last week?)
- Monthly income 1 (If employed: What is your income from your main occupation on a monthly basis?)
- Monthly income 2 (If employed: What is your total income on a monthly basis? Including income from all sources not only the main occupation.)
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
- Job search time (If searching for a job: How many months have you been looking for work? If trained and employed: After finishing the training, how many months did it take you to find this job?)
- Number of applications in job search process (If searching for a job: Since you started looking for work, how many jobs have you applied for?)
- Number of interviews in job search process (If searching for a job: Since you started looking for work, how many interviews have you had?)
- Job satisfaction index (How satisfied are you with your current income from your main occupation? Overall, how satisfied are you with your main occupation?)
- Value of training in finding/exercising a job index (Overall, do you think the training increased your chances to find a job? Do you feel the education and training you received in the past is useful in getting a job? Overall, how useful has been your occupational training for your current work?)
- TVET program suitability for market needs (If trained: How appropriate was the program curriculum to meet market needs? [self-assessed])
- Changes in wage expectations (If trained: Did the training change your wage expectations?)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We conduct a pilot RCT with a single intervention, a combined internship and training program to improve the integration of youths into the labor market. To do so, 210 youths are randomly selected for treatment, whereas 100 youths serve as the control group. Both the treatment and the control group are selected from a pool of eligible individuals who stated their interest to participate in a TVET training and fulfil a set of eligibility criteria defined by the implementing NGO, ACTED Pakistan. They have been interviewed and were equally eligible to continue with the TVET training. The randomization is carried out in several steps: Following a set of interviews for a specific trait, ACTED shared a list of eligible candidates and a randomization into treatment and control group (with varying shares per trait) was carried out. In total, eight such batches of groups for randomization exist.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Stratified randomization, with eight TVET courses as strata. Varying treatment assignment probabilities across strata.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
210 treatment individuals, 100 control individuals
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Given the pilot nature of this study, outcomes will be reported only where we have sufficient power.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Institutional Review Board of RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SOLUTIONS, Islamabad, Pakistan
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials