A rational-emotive occupational health coaching program manual2 used in Onyishi, et al. was adapted and blended with online module and used in the study. The adapted modules utilized the “ABCDE” model (Activating event, Beliefs, Consequences, Disputing, and Effective new philosophy) to change dysfunctional and irrational beliefs associated with work experiences. The major aim of bREOHC was to use ABCDE face-to-face group therapeutic model combined with online module in “disputing” – challenging and questioning employees’ work-related irrational and dysfunctional beliefs and replacing them with rather helpful and functional beliefs.[2, 34]
The researcher adopted the ABCDE model in explaining the relationships existing between activating (A) events associated with teaching children with ASD, dysfunctional thoughts, beliefs or cognitions arising from those events (B); the emotional and behavioral consequences of the beliefs (C).[56, 57] Activating event (A) in teaching children with special education needs could be a challenging situation associated with learning difficulties of the children, behavioural problems, extra work-load and teachers’ personal experiences; the belief (B) is the interpretation and cognitive imagery formed due to “A”. Such cognition about the event (B) elicits a consequence/effect (C) for the teacher, which may be adaptive or maladaptive. Maladaptive consequence may include anxiety, depression and stress symptomatology. Then, disputation techniques (D) are used to eliminate the maladaptive, dysfunctional and self-limiting beliefs and cognitions.[57, 58, 59] Disputation involves challenging and comparing the maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive ones. According to Ellis, the best way to counter irrational beliefs is by considering realistic and logical ones. Hence as participants become aware of and counteract their dysfunctional beliefs, they come up with more effective world-views (E). This ABCDE model as used in earlier study by the first author formed the basis of activities throughout the intervention (See table 1).
Hence, in bREOHC we designed a face-to-face combined with inter-session internet-based therapy in 12 modules (six face-to face modules were delivered in alternate sessions with six internet-based modules). Each of the modules includes information, exercises, worksheets, images, examples, homework exercises and template for progress feedback. Additional audio and video files are also in the internet-based sessions.