"Violence-related experiences and opinions in Mali: a list-experiment based analysis"

Last registered on December 03, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

"Violence-related experiences and opinions in Mali: a list-experiment based analysis"
Initial registration date
September 29, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
October 04, 2021, 1:50 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
December 03, 2021, 9:55 AM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.


Primary Investigator

University Paris Dauphine

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University Paris-Dauphine
PI Affiliation
University Paris-Dauphine
PI Affiliation
Institut de recherche pour le developpement (IRD)
PI Affiliation
University Paris-Dauphine

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
We aim to survey by phone 1400 individuals across Mali to measure prevalence rates of violence-related experiences and opinions. We randomly assign half of the sample to a survey List Experiment and the other half to a Direct Questioning survey. The comparison between the prevalence rates measured with the List Experiment and with the Direct Questioning will provide the size of the reporting bias present in our sample.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Bertelli, Olivia et al. 2021. ""Violence-related experiences and opinions in Mali: a list-experiment based analysis" ." AEA RCT Registry. December 03. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.8275-1.1
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Experimental Details


In a list experiment, respondents are given a list of statements and are asked to declare how many of these statements they experienced (or agree with), without revealing which particular statements they experienced (or agree with). Respondents are randomly allocated to two groups. Control-group respondents are asked about a list of J so-called "baseline" items, while treatment-group respondents are asked about a list of J + 1 items, the additional item being the sensitive item that the researcher is interested in. Given the random allocation of respondents into the two groups, the prevalence rates of the baseline items should be equal across groups. The difference between the average number of items declared in the treatment group and in the control group thus provides an estimate of the prevalence of the sensitive item in the population.
Our List Experiment (LE) survey contains five list experiments in link with violence-related experiences and opinions. The Direct Questioning (DQ) survey contains five symmetrical direct Yes or No questions. The sensitive items of the LE survey are 1) "Over the last 12 months, me or a member of my household was physically assaulted outside home." 2) "Me or a member of my household owns a firearm." 3) "Me or a member of my household is ready to take up arms to defend our community." 4) "Nowadays, the army should rule in Mali". In addition, we will ask participants whether they trust international army forces in Mali.
Respondents assigned to the DQ survey will serve as control group. They will be administrated the same lists as the LE group, but without the sensitive items. The comparison of the response rates between the LE and the DQ groups will give us the measure of the violence prevalence rate in the sample.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
The main outcome is the response given by respondents to one of the five lists of items. The outcome variable will range between 0 and 3 for members of the DQ group and between 0 and 4 for members of the LE group.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
See intervention
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Assignment to the Treatment (List Experiment) group and to the Control group is randomly determined by the research team using the Stata software. Among the one-thousand men initially selected, 500 are assigned to the List Experiment and 500 to the Control group. The
same is done separately for women. Each randomization is stratified on regions. All individuals in the replacement list are also randomly assigned to either groups, so that, if necessary, replacements are done within the same group. The replacement list is also stratified on
gender and regions, as for the primary list.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
There are 12 regions. However, as described above, randomization is conducted at the individual level.
Sample size: planned number of observations
1400 individuals.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
700 individuals assigned to the treatment group (List experiment) and 700 to the Control group. Equal proportion of men and women in both groups.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Due to the absence of pre-existing data on our main outcomes we cannot provide accurate power calculations.
Supporting Documents and Materials

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Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Paris School of Economics
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents

Pre-analysis plan. Insecurity in Mali, experiences and opinions: A list experiment.

MD5: 7acc706cc60619e0ce582c277416757c

SHA1: 932464dccba8f54a0e74cc6428bfc6ea4d80743c

Uploaded At: December 03, 2021


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials