Gender-based Violence and School Achievement

Last registered on October 25, 2021

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Gender-based Violence and School Achievement
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0008361
Initial registration date
October 23, 2021
Last updated
October 25, 2021, 2:46 PM EDT

Locations

There are documents in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access to this information.

Request Information

Primary Investigator

Affiliation
Trinity College Dublin

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
ifo institute Munich
PI Affiliation
University of Passau
PI Affiliation
Columbia University
PI Affiliation
Trinity College Dublin
PI Affiliation
Princeton University

Additional Trial Information

Status
On going
Start date
2021-06-01
End date
2022-08-01
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Abstract
All around the globe, boys and girls attending schools experience gender-based violence (GBV). Such violent behaviors often go unnoticed and are rarely punished. Thus, how can we prevent GBV? A potential mechanism to prevent GBV among boys and girls attending schools is to provide information about what violence is, why it is unacceptable, and what can be done around it. But who should receive the information: girls, boys or both? Moreover, even if the information changes the norms around violence, can this lead to a reduction in GBV? Finally, how does this impact school attendance and performance?

This project aims to answer the above questions through a novel and large-scale in-school program in the province of Sofala, Mozambique. In collaboration with the Ministry of Education of Mozambique, UNICEF Mozambique and the NGO Girl Child Rights, the research team developed the intervention: “Está na Hora de Agir!” (It is time to act!). The intervention strengthens the existing GBV curriculum and disseminates it for upper primary schools through animated videos and in-school guided discussion. The experimental design allows us to evaluate the effect of the intervention delivered to girls, boys, girls, and boys jointly, on the prevalence of GBV, school attendance, and performance.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Amaral, Sofia et al. 2021. "Gender-based Violence and School Achievement." AEA RCT Registry. October 25. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.8361-1.0
Sponsors & Partners

There are documents in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access to this information.

Request Information
Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
The intervention "Está na Hora de Agir!” was developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Education (MINED), UNICEF Mozambique and the NGO Girl Child Rights.

The intervention strengthens the existing GBV curriculum and disseminates it for upper primary schools. The curriculum covers the following topics: (i) what type of actions constitute GBV, (ii) why violence is not acceptable, (iii) how to seek support and where to report, and (iv) what are some proactive behaviors that victims, survivors, and bystanders can engage in.

The information is delivered through short animated videos and in-school discussion sessions guided by the school's Gender Focal Points (GFPs). GFPS are teachers already working in schools that are responsible for all matters related to gender inequalities within schools. They are part of a national network created as part of the Ministry of Education efforts to address the gender gap in school attendance. By providing training to the GFPs around the GBV curriculum, we enhance the state infrastructures that are better able to identify, address, and reduce GBV.

The intervention takes place for 2 months. During this time, the students have 4 sessions ranging from 1 to 1.5 hours each. During the sessions, the students watch animated videos, play reflection games, and discuss GBV related issues with the guidance of the GFP. A staff member of the local NGO Girls Child Rights is also present during the sessions. Their role is to give the GFPs continuous support in the delivery of the GBV curriculum.
Intervention Start Date
2021-08-08
Intervention End Date
2021-11-01

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Incidence of GBV: survey questions, list experiments and help line records.
a. Our survey instrument is an adaptation of the World Health Organization IPV survey instrument to schools attending children.
2. Recognition of GBV: indicators for whether the respondents can identify if they observe or are subject to GBV.
a. We use vignettes to capture this outcome.
3. Reporting of GBV: whether respondents report any observed or experienced GBV, if so through what channels.
4. Schooling outcomes: school enrolment, attendance, learning outcomes.
a. We use survey data, administrative data and standardized test scores in mathematics and reading.

Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Our secondary outcomes are related to the mechanisms through which we expect the intervention to affect GBV. These include:
1. Bystander behaviour: whether students do something when they observe a case of GBV.
2. Attitudes on GBV: whether students think GBV is acceptable under certain scenarios; stigma associated with GBV.
3. Costs to perpetrators: to what extent students think there will be costs or social sanctions towards GBV’s perpetrators.
4. Safety: students' perceptions about the safety of the school environment.
5. Aspirations: what students expect for the future.
6. Mental health: survey questions on mental health (e.g. depression).


Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
T1: intervention to female students only,
T2: intervention to boys only,
T3: information to boys and girls jointly,
C: Schools, where neither boys nor girls are treated.

In our estimation of the treatment effects, in order to improve precision, we will control for baseline levels of covariates that will be determined using double-lasso variable selection.

We will test the heterogeneity of the treatment effects with respect to:
- Prevalence of initiation rites at baseline
- Baseline prevalence of GBV at school level
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer.
Randomization Unit
Unit of randomization is a school. We use districts and an indicator for high vs low GBV level at school-level at baseline (relative to other schools within the same district) as randomization strata.
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
326 Schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
9,107 pupils: 4,605 males and 4,502 females
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
87 schools in control, 76 schools girls only intervention (T1), 83 schools girls only intervention (T2), 80 schools girls only intervention (T3)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Trinity College Dublin
IRB Approval Date
2021-01-25
IRB Approval Number
N/A
IRB Name
Princeton University
IRB Approval Date
2019-12-16
IRB Approval Number
12348
IRB Name
Republica de Mocambique Comite Nacional de Bioetica para a Saude
IRB Approval Date
2019-12-20
IRB Approval Number
IRB0002657