Gender-based Violence and School Achievement

Last registered on February 21, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Gender-based Violence and School Achievement
Initial registration date
October 23, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
October 25, 2021, 2:46 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
February 21, 2023, 7:36 AM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

Trinity College Dublin

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
ifo institute Munich
PI Affiliation
University of Passau
PI Affiliation
Columbia University
PI Affiliation
Trinity College Dublin
PI Affiliation
Princeton University

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
All around the globe, boys and girls attending schools experience gender-based violence (GBV). Such violent behaviors often go unnoticed and are rarely punished. Thus, how can we prevent GBV? A potential mechanism to prevent GBV among boys and girls attending schools is to provide information about what violence is, why it is unacceptable, and what can be done around it. But who should receive the information: girls, boys or both? Moreover, even if the information changes the norms around violence, can this lead to a reduction in GBV? Finally, how does this impact school attendance and performance?

This project aims to answer the above questions through a novel and large-scale in-school program in the province of Sofala, Mozambique. In collaboration with the Ministry of Education of Mozambique, UNICEF Mozambique and the NGO Girl Child Rights, the research team developed the intervention: “Está na Hora de Agir!” (It is time to act!). The intervention strengthens the existing GBV curriculum and disseminates it for upper primary schools through animated videos and in-school guided discussion. The experimental design allows us to evaluate the effect of the intervention delivered to girls, boys, girls, and boys jointly, on the prevalence of GBV, school attendance, and performance.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Amaral, Sofia et al. 2023. "Gender-based Violence and School Achievement." AEA RCT Registry. February 21.
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Experimental Details


The intervention "Está na Hora de Agir!” was developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Education (MINED), UNICEF Mozambique and the NGO Girl Child Rights.

The intervention strengthens the existing GBV curriculum and disseminates it for upper primary schools. The curriculum covers the following topics: (i) what type of actions constitute GBV, (ii) why violence is not acceptable, (iii) how to seek support and where to report, and (iv) what are some proactive behaviors that victims, survivors, and bystanders can engage in.

The information is delivered through short animated videos and in-school discussion sessions guided by the school's Gender Focal Points (GFPs). GFPS are teachers already working in schools that are responsible for all matters related to gender inequalities within schools. They are part of a national network created as part of the Ministry of Education efforts to address the gender gap in school attendance. By providing training to the GFPs around the GBV curriculum, we enhance the state infrastructures that are better able to identify, address, and reduce GBV.

The intervention takes place for 2 months. During this time, the students have 4 sessions ranging from 1 to 1.5 hours each. During the sessions, the students watch animated videos, play reflection games, and discuss GBV related issues with the guidance of the GFP. A staff member of the local NGO Girls Child Rights is also present during the sessions. Their role is to give the GFPs continuous support in the delivery of the GBV curriculum.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Incidence of GBV: survey questions, list experiments and help line records.
a. Our survey instrument is an adaptation of the World Health Organization IPV survey instrument to schools attending children.
2. Recognition of GBV: indicators for whether the respondents can identify if they observe or are subject to GBV.
a. We use vignettes to capture this outcome.
3. Reporting of GBV: whether respondents report any observed or experienced GBV, if so through what channels.
4. Schooling outcomes: school enrolment, attendance, learning outcomes.
a. We use survey data, administrative data and standardized test scores in mathematics and reading.

Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Our secondary outcomes are related to the mechanisms through which we expect the intervention to affect GBV. These include:
1. Bystander behaviour: whether students do something when they observe a case of GBV.
2. Attitudes on GBV: whether students think GBV is acceptable under certain scenarios; stigma associated with GBV.
3. Costs to perpetrators: to what extent students think there will be costs or social sanctions towards GBV’s perpetrators.
4. Safety: students' perceptions about the safety of the school environment.
5. Aspirations: what students expect for the future.
6. Mental health: survey questions on mental health (e.g. depression).

Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
T1: intervention to female students only,
T2: intervention to boys only,
T3: information to boys and girls jointly,
C: Schools, where neither boys nor girls are treated.

In our estimation of the treatment effects, in order to improve precision, we will control for baseline levels of covariates that will be determined using double-lasso variable selection.

We will test the heterogeneity of the treatment effects with respect to:
- Prevalence of initiation rites at baseline
- Baseline prevalence of GBV at school level
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer.
Randomization Unit
Unit of randomization is a school. We use districts and an indicator for high vs low GBV level at school-level at baseline (relative to other schools within the same district) as randomization strata.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
326 Schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
9,107 pupils: 4,605 males and 4,502 females
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
87 schools in control, 76 schools girls only intervention (T1), 83 schools boys only intervention (T2), 80 schools joint (girls & boys) intervention (T3)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Trinity College Dublin
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
IRB Name
Princeton University
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
IRB Name
Republica de Mocambique Comite Nacional de Bioetica para a Saude
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials