The JADENKÄ Program

Last registered on October 26, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

The JADENKÄ Program
Initial registration date
October 25, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
October 26, 2021, 3:00 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Innovations for Poverty Action

Additional Trial Information

Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
To provide experimental evidence on the effectiveness of an ethnomathematics education program, in this article we evaluate the impact of JADENKÄ, an intercultural bilingual program designed to increase the mathematical and ethnomathematical skills of the Ngäbe preschoolers, within the comarca Ngäbe-Buglé in Panama. Our experimental results indicate positive effects of the program on the mathematical and ethnomathematical skills of students. The magnitude of the impact on mathematics (0.12-0.18 s.d.) is comparable to other intercultural bilingual education preschool programs in low- and middle-income countries. In ethnomathematics the impact is around 0.23 s.d. Additionally, and consistent with other studies, we find that JADENKÄ has a positive effect on the cultural identity of students. Second, results suggest that the effect of the program in ethnomathematics is higher for students who speak Ngäbere and for those whose teacher identifies as Ngäbe. Finally, the program increased teachers’ ethnomathematical skills and knowledge of the Ngäbere language and culture. Contrary to the positions of some critics on the implementation of an ethnomathematics curriculum, our findings indicate that a well-designed ethnomathematics program can reduce the indigenous achievement gap without putting students in a dilemma between their academic learning and their identity, culture, and language.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Hernandez-Agramonte, Juan Manuel and Emma Naslund-Hadley. 2021. "The JADENKÄ Program ." AEA RCT Registry. October 26.
Sponsors & Partners


Experimental Details


The JADENKÄ intercultural bilingual mathematics program was designed to improve learning of preschoolers in the Ngäbe Buglé region, the largest and most populous of Panama’s indigenous comarcas. The preschools in the comarca follow the national curriculum, which encompasses a module on Mathematical Logical Thinking that covers concepts aligned with those taught internationally in preschool and kindergarten. These include geometry, spatial relations, measurement, the ability to use and relate numbers, their basic operations, symbols and forms of expression and mathematical reasoning to solve problems of daily life in children’s social environment (MEDUCA, 2014). This national mathematics curriculum is intended to be taught through 60-minute daily lessons throughout the 200-day academic year.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
cultural identity, mathematics skills, and ethnomathematics skills
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
An intercultural bilingual education approach could potentially have an effect on cultural knowledge and cultural identity. To measure possible effects in this dimension, a module was included that had three areas related to cultural identity: knowledge, perception, and attitude (Sparks, 1992).

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Spanish, Ngabere
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
A stratified randomization strategy was used to assign the 373 schools in the sample to the treatment and control groups. This strategy groups the schools into different strata and, within these strata, the schools are randomly assigned to either the treatment or control group. This method increases the probability that the groups are balanced, on average, compared to simple randomization in the case of small samples (Bruhn & McKenzie, 2009). To generate the strata, two variables were used: (i) the geographical area where the school is located: Bocas del Toro, Chiriquí, Veraguas, Nedrini, Kädri, and Ño Kribo; and (ii) the type of education offered at the school: formal, CEFACEI, or both . The final sample includes 125 schools in the control group and 248 schools in the treatment group. The evaluation was carried out in the same sample of schools during the years 2018 and 2019, that is, those schools that received the program in 2018 continued to implement it in 2019 as well. However, each year a different cohort of students participated.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization was done in office by a computer.
Randomization Unit
Randomization was conducted at the school level.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
373 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
2018: 2,216 2019: 2,699
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
The sample size was 373 schools, divided into 125 schools in the control group and 248 schools in the treatment group.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
0.10 s.d.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials