Measuring the incidence and reporting of Violence Against Women in Public Spaces in Dar es Salaam

Last registered on November 01, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

Measuring the incidence and reporting of Violence Against Women in Public Spaces in Dar es Salaam
Initial registration date
October 29, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
November 01, 2021, 12:47 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


Primary Investigator

World Bank

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences
PI Affiliation
Muhimbili University of Health and Applied Sciences

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Violence against women (VAW) in public spaces is a problem across the world. It violates women’s rights to live in freedom and safety, and negatively affects their health and wellbeing. Such violence affects women’s right to move – to commute, look for jobs, access healthcare and education – and their occupational choices and socioeconomic outcomes. Qualitative data suggests high rates of VAW including physical and sexual harassment, in public spaces in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Additionally, such violence is highly underreported and distinctively stigmatized. It also poses a unique risk to women in terms of its high frequency but low detection rate, large variation in its types, and high social tolerance. Poor data, weak reporting systems, no analytics, and the lack of policy experimentation constrain the government’s ability to develop policies and interventions to effectively monitor and ensure women’s safety in public spaces. In this project, we aim to contribute to the understanding of both the key issues of measurement and reporting of VAW in public transport. Specifically, this project aims to: (1) develop a GBV incident reporting mobile application (app) to record the various types of incidents experienced and witnessed by users and their perceptions of safety during their daily commute around the city in space and over time, (2) test the validity and scalability of this app-based measurement tool, (3) test the efficacy of low-cost alert-based behavioral nudges on reporting behavior and (4) test the effectiveness of the reporting app in making women feel safer and improving their mobility and self-efficacy.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Borker, Girija et al. 2021. "Measuring the incidence and reporting of Violence Against Women in Public Spaces in Dar es Salaam." AEA RCT Registry. November 01.
Experimental Details


We will provide the mobile app to a random subset of female students in our sample.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
The key outcome variables of interest in this experiment are reports of harassment, perception of safety, mobility behavior, mental wellbeing and generalized self-efficacy
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We want to test the effectiveness of different methods of data collection and behavioral nudges on women's reporting of harassment in public spaces.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization will occur via a computer.
Randomization Unit
The unit of randomization will be the individual woman.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
1,200 adult women
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,200 women students who are between 18-25 years of age.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
600 women in the treatment group who receive the mobile app and are paid for their app usage, 300 women in the treatment group who receive the mobile app but are not paid for their app usage and 300 women in the control group.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials