Status quo arm ("Control"): Under the status quo, sprayers are provided with a fixed quantity of pesticide chemicals from warehouses from the Mozambique Nuts Institute (IAM).
Voucher arm ("Treatment"): A voucher program will be piloted to support the transition to a private sector model in three localities in Nampula province in northern Mozambique. The voucher delivery system pilot allows preidentified sprayers to obtain free pesticide chemicals for preidentified farmers from either warehouses from the IAM, agrodealers, or a private sector vendor depending on their locality. To receive these vouchers, sprayers provide TechnoServe (TNS), a non-profit organization with experience in the cashew industry in Mozambique, and IAM extension agents a list of farmers they worked with during the 2020 spraying season and are planning to work with in the 2021 season. Based on this list, sprayers will receive six personalized vouchers for each of the farmers on their list, two for each of the three sprayings to be applied over the course of the spraying season. While three of the six vouchers are used by the sprayer to redeem chemicals, the other three vouchers act as a receipt for the farmer on the quantity of chemicals they should receive. Each voucher includes the name of the farmer, the number of active trees, the quantity of chemicals that can be redeemed with it, the value of the chemicals in Meticais, and where it can be redeemed. The quantity of chemicals listed depends on the number of active trees a farmer has. The vouchers are distributed to farmers through sprayers and are only valid if they are signed by both the sprayer and the farmer.