Primary Outcomes (explanation)
The test items consist of both multiple- choice and short questions. The test is intended to assess problem-solving capacities in mathematics (e.g., geometric skills and complex worded problems), and English comprehension requiring students verbal, language, and reasoning skills. Local school teachers and educators were consulted to ensure that the tests are appropriate for the grade level. In addition, test scores were collected in the range of 0 to 100. In order to make it comparable across groups, we normalize these test scores of each student by subtracting the average test score of the control group in the respective year and dividing by the standard deviation.
In terms of non-cognitive skills, they are measured by three dimensions including self control, social skills and motivation to learn of a student. The questions used to measure each category are listed below.
(1) Is the student regular in class? 1=Yes, 0=No
(2) Does the student regularly do his homework? 1=Yes, 0=No
(3) Does the student regularly do his homework? 1=Yes, 0=No
(1) How adaptive is the student in making friends? 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(2) How adaptive is the student in sustaining relationships? 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(3) How does the student behave with classmates? 1=Competitive, 2=Irreconcilable 3=Friendly
(1) How much attentive is the student in class? 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(2) How desirous of study is the student? 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(3) How eager is the student in learning lessons? 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(4) Involvement in taking challenging job 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(5) How much does the student enjoy doing challenging jobs 1=Moderate, 2=Much, 3=Very much
(6) Does the student take challenging work? 1=Sometimes, 2=Often, 3=Very often
The standardization of non-cognitive skills are as follows. After answers are collected for each skill, we aggregate the corresponding questions into one variable by calculating the average across the responses (all responses are numerical), so all measures take values in [0, 1]. We then normalize the measures by subtracting the mean and then dividing by the standard deviation of the control group. We also construct an Index, which is the average of these three measures and it represents the overall non-cognitive ability of a student.