Improving football for development program outcomes using goal setting

Last registered on January 19, 2022


Trial Information

General Information

Improving football for development program outcomes using goal setting
Initial registration date
January 19, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
January 19, 2022, 10:29 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

B4Development Foundation

Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
The football for development festival provided participants with basic knowledge on the use of sports and football to promote positive change within their communities through workshops delivered during four days. The main goal of the festival was to encourage participants to seek out ways they can become agents of change and apply what they learned. As previous research found, we don't always act on our intentions and therefore we explore whether setting out a plan and list of four goals can increase participants chances to act and bring about change in their communities after the festival. To encourage regular attendance, at the start of the festival, all participants took a pledge that they will attend the workshops and do their best to gain new knowledge and apply it for social good. The intervention proposed is to test whether using goal-setting in a WhatsApp group will sparkle participants' motivation and lead them to act on their intention to become agents of change.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Makki, Fadi. 2022. "Improving football for development program outcomes using goal setting ." AEA RCT Registry. January 19.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Difference between treatment and control groups in follow-through surveys #1 and #2, Number of participants who managed to reach the 4 goals
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
The survey will measure whether participants feel confident in being agents of change and how they have used the lessons learned from the workshops on addressing social issues in their communities. It also measures what knowledge they perceive to be the most important and how they have used this in practice.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Festival attendees that attended day 1 of the festival will be assigned, through a randomization exercise done on the computer, to one of two groups (control/treatment). The treatment group will then be broken down into smaller groups and will receive the list of 4 goals to commit to as well as weekly reminders. The goals will focus on actionable results which participants can complete in their journey to becoming agents of change, this includes researching about different social issues in their community then choosing one social issue that they will have to address using sports. Following this, they will look into organizations that are currently working on the social issue of their choice and reach out to volunteer their time to work with the organization they had identified. This will support them by breaking the main goal (being an agent of change) into smaller and more achievable outcomes.
There will be a follow-through survey shared to both control and treatment groups that looks at the differences between both groups on how they have applied what they have learned from the workshops in their everyday lives. Following this, the control group will be broken down into smaller groups and will receive the list of goals that were previously shared with the treatment groups as well as the weekly reminders. Finally, the follow-through survey will be shared again with all participants to analyze any changes in the behavior of control and treatment groups.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization will be done in the office by a computer
Randomization Unit
Individual randomization will be done based on control and treatment conditions – gender will be taken into account
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Sample size: planned number of observations
100 participants that attended the football for development festival divided between control and treatment
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
control - 50 individuals
treatment - 50 individuals
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials