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Innovative approaches to addressing gender gaps in productivity and earnings
Last registered on December 20, 2017

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Innovative approaches to addressing gender gaps in productivity and earnings
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0000888
Initial registration date
October 02, 2015
Last updated
December 20, 2017 4:15 PM EST
Location(s)
Region
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
World Bank
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
Leuphana University of Luneburg
PI Affiliation
National University of Singapore / Leuphana University of Luneburg
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
PI Affiliation
World Bank
Additional Trial Information
Status
Completed
Start date
2013-10-15
End date
2017-09-22
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Standard business training programs aim to boost the incomes of the millions of self-employed business owners in developing countries by teaching basic financial and marketing practices, yet the impacts of such programs are mixed. We test whether a psychology-based personal initiative training approach which teaches and promotes a proactive mindset that focuses on entrepreneurial behaviors can have more success. A randomized controlled trial in Togo assigned microenterprise owners to a control group (N=500); a leading business training program (N=500); or to personal initiative training (N=500). Four follow-up surveys track firm outcomes over two years and show personal initiative training increases firm profits by 30 percent, compared to a statistically insignificant 11 percent for traditional training. The training is cost-effective, paying for itself within one year.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Campos, Francisco et al. 2017. "Innovative approaches to addressing gender gaps in productivity and earnings." AEA RCT Registry. December 20. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.888-3.0.
Former Citation
Campos, Francisco et al. 2017. "Innovative approaches to addressing gender gaps in productivity and earnings." AEA RCT Registry. December 20. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/888/history/24326.
Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
Intervention Start Date
2014-04-01
Intervention End Date
2014-08-31
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
The primary outcomes of interest include business performance, measured as sales and profits, and firm survival. The pre-analysis plan details the secondary outcomes of interest and the specifications to be used.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
In this randomly controlled trial, 500 entrepreneurs were selected to participate in a managerial training, and 500 entrepreneurs were selected to participate in a personal initiative training. Entrepreneurs in each training group received 12 half-day sessions of classroom training followed by four months of one-on-one mentoring. The impact of each type of training will be measured in comparison with a control group, and the effects of the two types of trainings will be compared.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
The randomization was done on a computer in front of representatives from the government, the project, the partners of the project, and the beneficiaries.
Randomization Unit
The randomization was done using stratified random sampling at the individual level.
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
This is not a clustered randomization. The selection is done at the individual level.
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,500 entrepreneurs
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
500 entrepreneurs in the managerial training group, 500 entrepreneurs in the personal initiative training group, 500 entrepreneurs in the control group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan
Analysis Plan Documents
Pre-analysis plan

MD5: efbd8ba3b127876a3c8210dd42f31cc0

SHA1: 7bc22868e12165ad1683c36fff6ddd1673f082df

Uploaded At: September 28, 2015

Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
Yes
Intervention Completion Date
August 31, 2014, 12:00 AM +00:00
Is data collection complete?
Yes
Data Collection Completion Date
September 30, 2016, 12:00 AM +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
1500 firms
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Yes
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
4 Rounds of follow-up surveys were conducted. Attrition rates averaged 9%, and are reported in Table S1 in the Science paper. Attrition rates varied by up to 2-3 percent by treatment status, and results are robust to these concerns. Total number of firm*time observations is 5633 to 5692 for our main outcomes (Table 1 of Science paper)
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
500 control, 500 traditional training, 500 personal initiative, with attrition rates in different samples given in Table S1 of the Science paper.
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Yes
Program Files
Program Files
Yes
Reports and Papers
Preliminary Reports
Relevant Papers
Abstract
Standard business training programs aim to boost the incomes of the millions of self-employed business owners in developing countries by teaching basic financial and marketing practices, yet the impacts of such programs are mixed. We test whether a psychology-based personal initiative training approach which teaches and promotes a proactive mindset that focuses on entrepreneurial behaviors can have more success. A randomized controlled trial in Togo assigned microenterprise owners to a control group (N=500); a leading business training program (N=500); or to personal initiative training (N=500). Four follow-up surveys track firm outcomes over two years and show personal initiative training increases firm profits by 30 percent, compared to a statistically insignificant 11 percent for traditional training. The training is cost-effective, paying for itself within one year.
Citation
Francisco Campos, Michael Frese, Markus Goldstein, Leonardo Iacovone, Hillary Johnson, David McKenzie and Mona Mensmann, Teaching personal initiative beats traditional training in boosting small business in West Africa Science, vol. 357, issue 6357: pp. 1287-90, 22 September 2017