Primary Outcomes (explanation)
I. Exposure to COVID-19 (direct and/or indirect)
a. Number of household members who have been infected with coronavirus.
b. Number of household members who have been exposed to people who were diagnosed with coronavirus.
c. Number of people in immediate social environment who contracted the virus
d. Respondent is worried about contracting this illness in the next 12-months (1 if worried/very worried, 0 otherwise).
II. Economic shocks due to COVID-19 (e.g., loss jobs, decreased hours/productivity or wages/earnings)
a. Employed =1 if the individual worked for pay for any business, farming, or other activity in the last week. Or was self- /family employed.
b. Has anyone in the household (including respondent) lost their job since the pandemic began (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
c. Has anyone in the household (including respondent) gained a new job since the pandemic began (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
d. Individual was not able to work usual in the wage job in the last week (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
e. Total earnings from the work last week (this will be coded as zero for individuals who did not work in the last week.)
f. Any member of the household (not the respondent) was not able to perform the usual wage job.
g. Household operated a business, including a family business in 2020 (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
h. The revenue from the business has decreased in the last month (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
i. In 2020, household members including the respondents has worked on household farm growing crops, raising livestock, etc. (1 if decreased, 0 otherwise).
j. Normal activities in the farm such as raising livestock or fishing has decreased since the pandemic began. (1 if decreased, 0 otherwise).
k. The number of hours worked in the main job since the pandemic have decreased (1 if decreased, 0 otherwise).
l. The wage/earnings since the pandemic from the main job has decreased (1 if decreased, 0 otherwise).
m. Change in time use by head of the household or main breadwinner
III. Food security and general consumption
We will construct household food security/food insecurity and consumption expenditure based on the following categories:
• Food Security
a. Members in the household worried about not having enough food to eat because of lack of resources (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
b. Members in the household were unable to eat healthy food because of lack of money and resources (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
c. Members in the household ate less than usual because of lack of money and resources (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
d. Members in the household were not able to purchase the food due to shortage in supply of food products or restricted hours of grocery stores (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
e. Number of times respondent made trips to the grocery store in the last 7-days.
• Food Expenditures
a. Data on food purchased was collected by asking households about the values of each of the 10 food items purchased within the past week.
b. Data on the value of own production was collected by asking households about which crops they consumed in the two different seasons (season A= winter, Season B=summer) (based on questions in section C.1.40). We will convert these values into weekly terms.
c. We will compute total household expenditure on food as the sum of value of all food items purchased as well as self-produced during the past week. We will next convert these values to monthly figures by multiplying them by 4.33.
• Non-Food expenditures
a. Data on non-food household expenditure was collected by asking households about the expenses that were incurred during the last month.
b. Expenditure categories include medical, leisure (movie or food in a restaurant, etc.), clothes and decorations, a fee for transportation, electricity/gas/water, landline/mobile phone calls/internet, soap/detergent, hairdresser, etc.)
c. Money households had to pay for monthly rent for house
d. Total non-food expenditure will be constructed as the sum of all aforementioned non-food expenditure categories over a month.
• Non-Food expenditures
a. Expenditures on luxury goods, such as alcohol or tobacco
b. Expenditures on leisure
• Total household consumption expenditures and household per capita consumption expenditures
a. Total household consumption expenditure will be constructed as the sum of food and non-food consumption expenditures in the last 30 days.
b. Household per capita consumption expenditure will be constructed by dividing total household consumption expenditure by household size.
IV. Shocks and coping strategies during COVID-19
• Exposure to shocks
a. This family of outcomes covers shocks and events households experienced in the past 12 months
b. months, which may have disrupted their financial situation, as well as coping mechanisms.
c. Death of household principal income earner in the household due COVID-19
d. Serious illness of principal income earner in the household COVID-19
e. Job loss or business failure among household members COVID-19
f. Loss of livelihood/property due to fire, natural or other disasters COVID-19
g. Failed or bad harvest COVID-19
• Coping mechanisms (negative vs. positive)
1. Received money, food or other social assistance from the government or NGOs during the pandemic
2. Cut down meals consumption or bought cheaper food
3. Received money, food, or other assistance from the family or social network during the pandemic
4. Net amount of money received from friends or family during the pandemic
5. [Sending children away]: How many members were part of this household before the pandemic, but are no longer living in this household during the pandemic
6. Any money saved during the pandemic
7. How long household covered current expenses through savings
8. Household borrowed money and total money borrowed during the pandemic
9. Received money from family members or friends who are not a part of the household in the last 12 months (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
10. Frequency of money received from family members or friends who do not live in the household have increased.
11. Amount of money received from family members or friends who do not live in the household have increased (this will be coded as zero for households who have not received money.)
V. Children’s health and schooling/disruptions during COVID-19
a. Number of children stopped going to school in the last three months.
b. Number of children who were able to follow remote classes.
c. Whether household was able to hire a private teacher or tutor for at home lessons
d. Number of children who missed necessary immunization in the last 12 months.
e. Number of children who have been sick in the past 30-days.
f. The household was able to take sick children to the hospital for medical help (1 if yes, 0 otherwise).
g. Household has access to internet and computer for remote learning
h. Parents assist children with remote learning without outside assistance
i. Whether any children in the HH is working on a family farm/ business.
VI. Subjective well-being and cohabitation in COVID-19
a. Individual well-being based on Ladder Happiness Measures
b. This will be created based on the options- Happy, Calm, and Anxious.
c. Tensions between the family members during the pandemic
d. This will be done after reverse coding the questions. This is a five-item scale. Higher scores are desirable in that they indicate the absence of distress amongst the individuals during the last month.
e. Tensions between the family members in the last 2-weeks.
f. This will be done after reverse coding the questions. This is a five-item scale. Higher scores are desirable in that they indicate the absence of distress amongst the individuals during the last month.
VII Access to basic services (health and education)
• Access to healthcare
a. Time it takes to get to closest healthcare facility/services
b. Children 5 and under were sick
c. Children 5 and under received required vaccinations
d. Having a source of potable water in the house member in the past year
e. Household member/felt sick
f. Household used clinic/hospital in last 30 days
g. Medical expenditures
• Access to education
a. Time it takes to get to closest primary school facility
b. Number of school-age children attending school
c. Number of school-age children dropped/taken out of school
d. Household used educational facility in the last 30 days
e. Education-related expenditures
VII Women’s Empowerment (autonomy, agency and intimate partner violence)
• Women’s autonomy
a. Has employment or income generating activity
b. Place of work (i.e., home vs. outside of home
c. Participation in social groups
d. Participation in committees
e. Made a purchase or expense on leisure in the last 30 days
f. Borrowed money or contracted a debt from another person or organization in the past 2 years
g. Plans to borrow money or contracted a debt from another person or organization in the next 12 months
• Attitudes towards gender norms and equality
a. Women should have the same rights and duties as men.
b. Women should have the same chance than men to hold socio-administrative positions in this settlement
c. Women should be eligible to be the president of management committees that exist in this settlement.
• Intimate Partner Violence
a. Emotional violence
b. Physical violence
c. Economic violence
d. Sexual violence
e. Domestic violence
• Involvement in risky behaviors
a. Tobacco and alcohol use
b. Reproductive healthcare