Affordability perceptions of hybrid DTM seed in Uganda: Are expectations or endowment (status-quo) driving low willingness to pay?

Last registered on March 05, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Affordability perceptions of hybrid DTM seed in Uganda: Are expectations or endowment (status-quo) driving low willingness to pay?
Initial registration date
March 16, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
March 21, 2022, 1:26 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
March 05, 2023, 3:40 AM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.



Primary Investigator

Wageningen University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
ISSD Uganda
PI Affiliation
ISSD Uganda
PI Affiliation
Wageningen University

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
This study examines how reference points influence the value for hybrid maize seed and whether such valuing could (partly) explain the disparity between the market price and the willingness to pay for the seed pack. We assess how expectation-based and endowment-based reference points influence willingness to pay for seed. We test how price and ownership expectations affect the monetary value of seed through (modified) BDM auctions. We vary the probability of ownership and price by creating a high and a low probability version. We test the endowment effect by comparing willingness to pay for the seed pack and willingness to accept for giving up the seed pack.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Mastenbroek, Astrid et al. 2023. "Affordability perceptions of hybrid DTM seed in Uganda: Are expectations or endowment (status-quo) driving low willingness to pay?." AEA RCT Registry. March 05.
Experimental Details


We will use a framed field experiment whereby we expose farmers to different reference points and measure the value they attach to a 1kg hybrid maize seed pack. The treatments include a high and low price expectation treatment, a high and low ownership expectation treatment, and one that either endows the seed pack or does not endow the seed pack. For the measurement of the value, we use a (modified) BDM auction that elicits willingness-to-pay /willingness-to-accept for the product.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
willingness-to-pay (WTP) / willingness-to-accept (WTA) for a 1kg hybrid maize seed pack
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
This is a framed field experiment, among a sample of 900 maize growing smallholder farmers in Eastern Uganda, that are randomized into one of 6 treatments. We test how price expectations (test 1), ownership expectations (test 2), and/or endowment (test 3) affect the valuing of a 1kg seed pack. For the first test, we assign respondents randomly to a low or high price expectation version. Respondents bid (WTP) in a BDM auction on a one-kg pack of hybrid drought-tolerant maize variety. For the second test, we assign respondents randomly to a low or high ownership expectation version. We elicit WTA to give up this one-kg seed pack. For the third test, we randomly endow half the respondents with a seed pack and ask them how much money they are willing to accept to give up the seed. The other half is offered a seed pack and we ask them how much they are willing to pay for the seed pack.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization was done by computer using village listing
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
The total sample size is 900 smallholder farmers
Sample size: planned number of observations
900 smallholder farmers
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
150 respondents randomly allocated to each of the 6 treatments (900 in total)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
The minimum detectable effect size for each treatment is 1000 UGX, 20%, with a standard deviation of 3000.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Makerere University School of Social Sciences Research and Ethics Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
IRB Name
Wageningen Social Sciences Ethical Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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