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Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia
Last registered on October 29, 2015

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0000925
Initial registration date
October 29, 2015
Last updated
October 29, 2015 3:10 PM EDT
Location(s)
Region
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
University of Cologne
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Cologne
PI Affiliation
University of Cologne
Additional Trial Information
Status
On going
Start date
2014-11-12
End date
2016-12-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
We conduct a randomized field experiment in cooperation with Namibia Water Corporation Ltd. (NamWater) to improve payment behavior (reduce non-payments) for water consumption among private customers in rural Namibia, one of the driest countries in the world. In the first stage of the experiment we analyze a data panel about payment behavior of private customers in rural areas. In a second stage we conduct telephone interviews to investigate reasons for non-payment. Building on the insights from the second stage, we send invoice information by SMS and additionally test two behaviorally informed interventions featuring two types of commitment strategies: an implementation intentions treatment and an identity consistency treatment.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Rockenbach, Bettina, Sebastian Tonke and Arne Weiß. 2015. "Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia." AEA RCT Registry. October 29. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.925-1.0.
Former Citation
Rockenbach, Bettina et al. 2015. "Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia." AEA RCT Registry. October 29. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/925/history/5827.
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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
Intervention Start Date
2015-09-16
Intervention End Date
2016-09-30
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
- changes in payment behavior
- changes in water consumption
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
We call 12719 customers to inform them about a new SMS invoice service. Additional to the announcement of the new service, we elicit implementation intentions and commitments about future payments. In the identity consistency treatment we ask questions that intent to turn being a good water payer into part of the customer’s personal identity.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
We draw 1000 random samples stratified on geographical location. We then use the min-max t-stat method to balance on the yearly payment ratio (sum payment/ sum invoices), time of being customer, outstanding balance, payment frequency and total invoice amount.
Randomization Unit
We randomize on the individual level (private customer).
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
1
Sample size: planned number of observations
We called 12719 phone numbers of which 9668 customers answered and completed the phone call.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Baseline: 3271
Identity consistency: 3221
Implementation Intention: 3176
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
No
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS