Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia

Last registered on October 29, 2015

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0000925
Initial registration date
October 29, 2015
Last updated
October 29, 2015, 3:10 PM EDT

Locations

Region

Primary Investigator

Affiliation
University of Cologne

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
University of Cologne
PI Affiliation
University of Cologne

Additional Trial Information

Status
On going
Start date
2014-11-12
End date
2016-12-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
We conduct a randomized field experiment in cooperation with Namibia Water Corporation Ltd. (NamWater) to improve payment behavior (reduce non-payments) for water consumption among private customers in rural Namibia, one of the driest countries in the world. In the first stage of the experiment we analyze a data panel about payment behavior of private customers in rural areas. In a second stage we conduct telephone interviews to investigate reasons for non-payment. Building on the insights from the second stage, we send invoice information by SMS and additionally test two behaviorally informed interventions featuring two types of commitment strategies: an implementation intentions treatment and an identity consistency treatment.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
, , Sebastian Tonke and . 2015. "Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia." AEA RCT Registry. October 29. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.925-1.0
Former Citation
, et al. 2015. "Improving Payment Behavior for Water in Rural Namibia." AEA RCT Registry. October 29. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/925/history/5827
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
Intervention Start Date
2015-09-16
Intervention End Date
2016-09-30

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
- changes in payment behavior
- changes in water consumption
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We call 12719 customers to inform them about a new SMS invoice service. Additional to the announcement of the new service, we elicit implementation intentions and commitments about future payments. In the identity consistency treatment we ask questions that intent to turn being a good water payer into part of the customer’s personal identity.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
We draw 1000 random samples stratified on geographical location. We then use the min-max t-stat method to balance on the yearly payment ratio (sum payment/ sum invoices), time of being customer, outstanding balance, payment frequency and total invoice amount.
Randomization Unit
We randomize on the individual level (private customer).
Was the treatment clustered?
No

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
1
Sample size: planned number of observations
We called 12719 phone numbers of which 9668 customers answered and completed the phone call.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Baseline: 3271
Identity consistency: 3221
Implementation Intention: 3176
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number

Post-Trial

Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Intervention

Is the intervention completed?
No
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?
No

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials