Higher Order Risk Preferences and Field Behavior in Rural Bangladesh: An Intervention

Last registered on June 26, 2022

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Higher Order Risk Preferences and Field Behavior in Rural Bangladesh: An Intervention
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0009595
Initial registration date
June 20, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
June 26, 2022, 5:21 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Locations

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Primary Investigator

Affiliation
Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
PI Affiliation
Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods
PI Affiliation
The University of Sydney

Additional Trial Information

Status
In development
Start date
2018-03-01
End date
2023-12-31
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial is based on or builds upon one or more prior RCTs.
Abstract
Using a sample of about 3,000 households in rural Bangladesh, we assess the effectiveness of the Lions Quest Skills for Growing program in a new data collection about three years after its implementation in grades 2 to 5 in 2019. Lions Quest Skills for Growing is a school based social and emotional learning program that was taught in randomly assigned elementary schools in Bangladesh. Two of its main goals address health-related behavior, and more generally, the program aims at responsible decision-making.
Here, we examine whether the program affects higher-order risk preferences and whether these are associated with improvements in preventive and particularly health-related behaviors among adolescents, where effect sizes in the case of preferences will be compared to those due to intergenerational transmission in a sub-sample. Risk preferences are measured experimentally, and preventative and health-related behaviors are surveyed using an extensive catalogue of corresponding questions. This new data collection will start as soon as this registration will be reviewed.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Chowdhury, Shyamal et al. 2022. "Higher Order Risk Preferences and Field Behavior in Rural Bangladesh: An Intervention." AEA RCT Registry. June 26. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.9595
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
The intervention consists of conveying the content of the 'Lions Quest Skills for Growing Program' during school hours in participating schools. The material of interest here aims at helping children and adolescents making good judgments, especially when it comes to health and prevention. Please see https://www.lions-quest.org/explore-our-sel-curriculum/elementary-school-social-and-emotional-learning/ for more information.
Intervention Start Date
2019-02-01
Intervention End Date
2019-10-31

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Higher-Order Risk Preferences, in particular prudence, will be investigated for a moderating role between the intervention and the outcomes 1-3 below
1) Health-Related Behavior
* General Health
* Addictive Behavior (asked to children from age 12 onwards)
* Excessive Phone Usage
2) Preventative Behavior (with a focus on, but not limited to, health-related behavior)
* Short-Term Prevention
* Long-Term Prevention
3) Eco-Friendly Behavior
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
0) Higher Order Risk Preferences will be measured experimentally using a short three point certainty equivalence version (9 survey items) of the method introduced in Schneider, Ibanez and Riener (2021).

1) Health Behavior will be measured using survey instruments.
* General: consists of two survey items (regularity of sport/exercising - a 7 point scale ranging from never to daily; reduction/avoidance of exposure to indoor pollution - a 5 point scale ranging from completely disagree to completely agree)

* Addictive Behavior: consists of six survey items asked to children from age 12 onwards (usage of paan or tobacco - 7 point scale ranging from 'never tried' to 'more than 5 times per day'; ganja consumption - a 4 point scale ranging from 'never tried' to 'regular consumption'; regularity of tobacco smoking - a 4 point scale ranging from 'never tried to regular consumption', alcohol consumption - a 4 point scale ranging from 'never tried' to 'regular consumption'; experimentation with other substances - a binary question; regularity of consumption of other substances - a continuous integer outcome.)

* Excessive Phone Usage: consists of ten survey items (all items are 5 point scales, except the first item on ownership of or access to a mobile phone (filter question) and the last item on activities performed on the phone (7 options); the remaining items are: feeling of missing interaction with the phone - scale ranging from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'; problems in personal relations due to excessive phone usage - scale ranging from 'never' to 'daily'; uncomfortable feeling when unable to interact with phone - scale ranging from completely disagree to completely agree; distracting with phone - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always'; disturbed by mobile phone - scale from 'never' to 'always'; lack of self-control with respect to usage time - scale from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'; phone interaction interferes personal life - scale from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'; sleep deprivation due to phone usage - scale from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'.)

2) Preventative Behavior will be measured using survey instruments.
* Short-Term Prevention: consists of seven survey items (all of them are 5 point scales with n/a option as indicated below; the items are: washing hands with soap - scale ranging from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree'; wearing helmet when biking/motorcycling - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always' with the option to indicate that participants never ride a bike or motorcycle; not jumping in unsafe waters - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always' with the option to indicate that participants generally do not jump into water or that there is just no water nearby; interchanging secrets with friends - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always'; "hedging" in group work at school - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always' with the option to indicate that participants do not attend school; making homework to avoid being called out without homework in front of the class - scale ranging from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree' with the option to indicate that participants do not attend school; avoiding to walk alone - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always'.)

* Long-Term Prevention: consists of seven survey items (all of them are 5 point scales with n/a option as indicated below; the items are: brushing teeth - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always; eating sweets - scale ranging from 'never' to 'every day'; eating fruits - scale ranging from 'never' to 'every day, when seasonally available'; fetching water from arsenic-free sources - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always' with the option to indicate that participants never fetch water or that they are not aware of the problem; drinking only water that can be assumed to be free of arsenic - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always' with the option to indicate that participants are not aware of the problem; getting good grades at school as a precautionary measure - scale ranging from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree' with the option to indicate that participants do not attend school; staying in school as long as possible as a precautionary measure - scale ranging from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree' with the option to indicate that participants do not attend school.)

3) Eco-Friendly Behavior will be measured using survey instruments, and it consists of 3 items (all of them are 5 point scales with n/a option as indicated below; the items are: non-disposal of waste in nature - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always'; avoidance of plastic bags - scale ranging from 'never' to 'always'; planting trees to help the environment - scale ranging from 'completely disagree' to 'completely agree' with the option to state that the question does not apply, because no trees are planted with the goal mentioned.)

Aggregation of the survey masures 1) to 3) from individual items will be performed by a) unweighted mean b) weighted mean, using weights e.g. from a PCA on the whole sample or the village where we always will be accounting for reversed items. This will result in continuous measures/indices, where higher outcomes indicate more favourable outcomes. We might also apply data-driven approaches to identify particularly relevant single items that might be analyzed in isolation.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We have a single treatment and a single control group. The 135 primary schools in our sample are divided into 69 treatment and 66 control group schools by stratified randomization. In cooperation with Lions Clubs International, we implemented the social and emotional learning (SEL) program Lions Quest Skills for Growing (PreK-5) in grades 2 to 5 of the 69 treatment schools. The remaining 66 schools in the control group did not receive any treatment.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization was done in an office by a computer, more specifically using STATA. In order to gain a balanced treatment-control group setting, we stratified by subdistrict (our schools are located in 11 subdistricts differing in their schooling authorities and hence their educational environment), by distance of the school to its respective subdistrict capital (as a proxy for schooling quality) and village literacy rate. No re-randomization was done but the first draw taken.
Randomization Unit
The treatment was randomized on school level.
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
Treatment was assigned to 69 out of a total of 135 schools (hence, 66 schools in control group). These schools are serving 150 villages that we randomly selected from 11 subdistricts (chosen based on the availability of NGOs willing to collaborate) belonging to four main districts of Bangladesh.
Sample size: planned number of observations
3,000 households from the 150 villages that are served by the 135 primary schools in our sample; sampled by selecting at least 20 children from grades 2 to 5 of each school in 2019 – larger samples from schools serving multiple sample villages, e.g. 40 children per school if the school serves two villages. We have a sample that covers about 3,000 pupils attending grades 2 to 5 in 2019 plus information on at least one of their siblings (if they have siblings, the additionally sampled sibling is chosen randomly).
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
69 schools in treatment group, 66 schools in control group.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Ethikkommission an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
IRB Approval Date
2018-02-23
IRB Approval Number
6212