An online experiment on attitudes towards temporary protection of refugees and helping behaviors in the EU

Last registered on July 12, 2022


Trial Information

General Information

An online experiment on attitudes towards temporary protection of refugees and helping behaviors in the EU
Initial registration date
July 11, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
July 12, 2022, 10:43 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

European Commission's JRC

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
European Commission's JRC

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
In February 2022, millions of Ukrainians fled their country after Russia’s invasion producing the fastest mass migration to Europe in decades. The European Council responded by adopting extraordinary temporary protection measures to assist the incoming people (“refugees”). But what are the Europeans’ attitudes towards temporary protection in general and for specific demographic groups? We evaluate how these attitudes vary with the demographic traits of the people displaced, reasons why they had to leave their country, and the rights covered under temporary protection (e.g., housing, labor market). We also evaluate the extent to which individuals can be persuaded to adopt more inclusionary attitudes towards refugees by being stimulated to take the perspective of a refugee (i.e., consider how he or she may think or feel about the situation) or by considering narratives that give a refugee’s perspective. Results may contribute to better social marketing communication to ease tensions associated with immigration. They may also inform preparedness programs for future refugee crises, especially in terms of preferable returns, integration, and relocation policies and how to activate these policy levers during a crisis.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Blasco, Andrea and Michal Krawczyk. 2022. "An online experiment on attitudes towards temporary protection of refugees and helping behaviors in the EU." AEA RCT Registry. July 12.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
We consider the following questions as outcome measures:
• To measure individual preferences towards refugees and support for temporary protection, we ask to choose between one or none hypothetical refugee situations in a choice experiment (“Please, compare groups A and B described in the table and indicate which of the two, if any, you would prefer to offer temporary protection in the EU.”). We repeat the question six times under different scenarios (see later).
• To measure support for protection to Ukrainian people in the current situation we ask whether they agree or not with granting temporary work permits to Ukrainians (“Do you agree or disagree with granting displaced people from Ukraine temporary work permits?”)
• We also aks whether they are willing to send a short text supporting Ukrainian refugees (encouraging volunteering, making donations, or raising awareness) to be shared via Twitter (“Would you agree to write a short text to persuade people in [Country] to donate? We will share your message on our Twitter account (You can also edit our template)”).
• To measure support to policies already in place, we ask whether they support the European Council’s decision to grant temporary protection to the Ukrainians (“do you support or do you oppose this decision?”) and whether the EU should extend it beyond the first year (“Assuming the situation in Ukraine does not change much, do you think the EU should extend the temporary protection for Ukrainian people beyond March 23, 2023?”)
• We also measure individual support for Ukraine to join the EU (“To what extent do you agree or disagree with the statement: ‘Ukraine is part of the EU family’”?).
• We ask about what rights (housing, labor market, medical, …) they would like to include in temporary protection.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We can divide our survey into four sequential sections: 1. demographic questions for screening (these are used to reach certain fixed quotas for country representativeness), 2. (conjoint) choice experiment, 3. perspective-taking experiment, and 4. collection of pre-treatment variables.

Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
The randomization is done automatically by the software that collectes the responses. All treatment assignments are stratified by country. Quotas are enforced to ensure country representativeness of the sample.
Randomization Unit
individual respondent level
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
We will survey the general population 18+ of six countries: Czechia, France, Hungary, Germany, Poland, and Romania. We will draw about 2,100 respondents per country and 3,500 for Poland.
Sample size: planned number of observations
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
6 countries
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
JRC - Research Ethics Board
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials