Gender gaps in financial literacy: Potential remedies

Last registered on August 09, 2022


Trial Information

General Information

Gender gaps in financial literacy: Potential remedies
Initial registration date
August 06, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
August 09, 2022, 4:46 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

Banco de España

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Banco de España
PI Affiliation
University of the Basque Country

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
There exist persistent gender gaps in financial knowledge, both over time and across countries. While many studies explore why women know less, these gaps might not only reflect differential knowledge but also differential behavior in the provision of an answer. The gaps are measured by the number of correct answers. However, men might always offer an answer while women might prefer to say they “do not know” when not completely certain. This project tests this hypothesis and explores whether these gaps could be closed with simple nudges. We implement an online survey to 6,000 participants to test how gender gaps vary in “do not know” and correct answers. The survey randomizes the questionnaire format by using a standard financial literacy survey, with “do not know” options, by excluding these, incentivizing the correct answers and providing informational nudges.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Hospido Quintana, Laura, Nagore Iriberri and Margarita Machelett. 2022. "Gender gaps in financial literacy: Potential remedies." AEA RCT Registry. August 09.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details


We will implement an online survey that randomizes participants into different versions of financial competences section. The survey will be completed by 6,000 participants aged 25-70, representative of the population living in Spain. The goal is to measure how financial competences and “do not know” answers vary by gender under different treatments.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Financial competences, measured by number of correct answers
Do not know answers
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Online survey to be implemented by firm, with a simple randomization of females and males into different versions of the survey. There will be a baseline survey (control), and three additional survey versions (treatments) completed by 6,000 participants that voluntarily cooperate with firm implementing survey.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Simple randomization by gender, done by survey programming tools.
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
6,000 individuals
Sample size: planned number of observations
6,000 complete interviews
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Maximum 3,000 control group, minimum 1,000 participants on each treatment arm (no-do-not-know, monetary incentive, informational nudge)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

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Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials