Primary Outcomes (end points)
The main outcome variables are students test scores, as a proxy for student learning. Assuming we are able to establish that the treatments had an impact in students test scores, secondary outcome variables would try to establish spillover effects, the mechanisms behind the main treatment effects and how the treatment effects vary across student, household, teacher and school characteristics.
A sample of 40 students per school (10 students from Grades 1, 2, 3, and 4) are to be tested in all treatment schools and in 100 control schools. Students will be tested at the end of the first year and at the end of the second year. Grade 1 students will be tested at the beginning of the first and second years, to provide baseline scores to evaluate their initial learning levels. The information from these tests will be used to calculate standardized test scores and compare achievement for children across treatment groups.
We also collect detailed student information (e.g. age and gender); detailed school information (e.g. facilities, management practices, and head teacher characteristics), detailed teacher information (e.g. education, age, experience, and self reported time use), and detailed household information (e.g. parental engagement in child's education, parents own education, household composition, and assets owned by the household). The information from our household, teacher, and schools surveys can be used to identify the mechanisms through which the treatment affects test scores. For example, we can look at the changes in learning outcomes in non-incentivized subjects; how teachers spend their time in school; how schools allocate funding (e.g. textbooks, scholarships, meals, etc.); whether schools increase the hours taught in the incentivized subjects; and whether households become more or less engaged in the child's education after the intervention. Using the baseline survey data we can study how the treatment effects differ across student, household, teacher, and school characteristics.