Please fill out this short user survey of only 3 questions in order to help us improve the site. We appreciate your feedback!
Preventing Excess Female School Drop Out in Mozambique: Conditional Transfers and the Respective Role of Parent and Child in Schooling Decisions
Last registered on February 29, 2016


Trial Information
General Information
Preventing Excess Female School Drop Out in Mozambique: Conditional Transfers and the Respective Role of Parent and Child in Schooling Decisions
Initial registration date
February 29, 2016
Last updated
February 29, 2016 10:07 AM EST
Primary Investigator
The World Bank
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Bristol
Additional Trial Information
On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
In order to shed light on the respective role of parents and children in making schooling decisions, our experiment will assign primary schools in Mozambique’s Manica province randomly across four groups, comprising three treatment groups and one control group. In the three treatment arms, we will introduce attendance “report cards” for each girl in Grade 6 and Grade 7, the last two grades of primary school, with the aim to record and share weekly attendance information with parents. In two of these treatment arms, transfers conditional on regular attendance will also be paid either (i) to parents, in cash or (ii) to the girls, in money-equivalent tokens redeemable against a selected number of items such as clothes, shoes and school bags made available at the school by the research team. The choice of these items was based on qualitative evidence suggesting that they were both valued by girls in the relevant target group and likely to “stick” to the child recipient, contrary to a cash transfer. We reinforce the comparability of the transfers of “cash to parents” and “in kind to daughters” by matching the value of the tokens to that of the cash transfer, and by allowing parents receiving cash to purchase the same items as the girls receiving tokens in the other treatment arm.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
de Walque, Damien and Christine Valente. 2016. "Preventing Excess Female School Drop Out in Mozambique: Conditional Transfers and the Respective Role of Parent and Child in Schooling Decisions." AEA RCT Registry. February 29. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.1069-1.0.
Former Citation
de Walque, Damien, Damien de Walque and Christine Valente. 2016. "Preventing Excess Female School Drop Out in Mozambique: Conditional Transfers and the Respective Role of Parent and Child in Schooling Decisions." AEA RCT Registry. February 29. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/1069/history/7075.
Sponsors & Partners

There are documents in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access to this information.

Request Information
Experimental Details
We allocated each sampled school randomly to one of four experimental groups.

In Treatment arms A and B, we introduced a program of transfers conditional on regular school attendance. The verification of the condition triggering the transfers is based on an attendance report card filled in by the main teacher on a daily basis, and intended to be taken home by the pupils every weekend. These report cards are checked independently by the research team between one and three times per trimester during unannounced spot checks.

Treatment arm A - in this group we will give money-equivalent "tokens" to girls in Grades 6 and 7 who will then be able to use the tokens to buy a selected number of items such as: clothes (school uniform-type especially), shoes, school bag, smaller materials (pens, notebooks, etc...) made available by the research team at the school. The choice of items listed here is based on focus groups interviews with girls age 12-15 and their parents (interviewed separately) in areas excluded from the experimental sample. The qualitative evidence collected indeed suggests that these items meet two important criteria: (i) they were consistently cited when children (parents) were asked what gifts could incentivize them (their daughters) to attend school regularly and (ii) both parents and children seemed confident that a girl who was given these items would be able to keep them for herself, and would not be expected to share with anyone else, thus ensuring that this treatment incentivizes the girls themselves rather than their families (other than through the utility they may derive from this extra consumption by their daughters).

Treatment arm B - in this group we give money to the parents, and make the same items as in Treatment arm A available for optional purchase at the school.

Note that in the girls' treatment arm (A), the price in tokens will match the price in Meticais for each item to reinforce comparability with Treatment arm B. In addition, the amount of the cash transfer in arm B will match the value of the tokens in arm A.

Treatment arm C is an "information" treatment, in which we introduce the attendance report card system described above for girls in Grades 6 and 7 without any conditional transfers.

Treatment arm D is the control group.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Main outcomes: school attendance conditional on enrollment, unconditional attendance, and school enrollment.
Secondary outcomes: teacher absenteeism, score at ASER math test and RAVEN test, marital status, self-reported quality of monitoring of daughter's school attendance, and intra-household bargaining power.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Cluster randomization of 173 schools into 4 groups: 3 treatment groups and one control group.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by computer.
Randomization Unit
173 schools.
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
173 schools.
Sample size: planned number of observations
Household survey sample: 3,460 girls (20 per cluster); Attendance spot checks sample: 15,800 pupils (about 91 girls per cluster, on average, based on 2014 data from the Ministry of Education).
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
44 schools in treatment group A (in-kind incentives to girls), 44 schools in treatment group B (money incentives to parents), 41 schools in treatment group C (information about attendance), 44 schools in control group D.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB Name
the University of Bristol's School of Economics, Finance & Management Research Ethics Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Is the intervention completed?
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)