Primary Outcomes (end points)
The primary research questions for the project are:
1. Is Green REAP able to maintain (or increase) the poverty and welfare impacts of REAP while achieving environmental benefits?
• Key outcomes: measures of poverty and welfare such as assets, household income, food security, and school enrollment, among others
2. Does Green REAP change environmental knowledge?
• Key outcomes: a module that tests knowledge of participants, especially those that they learned in the forest schools, e.g. knowledge about climate change, the interaction between humans and the environment, or how harmful resource extraction can be for the forest
3. Does Green REAP change environmental attitudes?
• Key outcomes: In contrast to knowledge, attitudes are beliefs formed about a topic, questions will include for instance: Do you think people should cut down trees to produce charcoal or recycle waste (“normative” questions)
4. Does Green REAP change environmental (business) practices? Does participation in Green REAP encourage households to engage in environmentally friendly businesses such as beekeeping or gum and resin harvesting? Does it shift existing businesses to more sustainable practices? And are environmentally harmful businesses abandoned?
• Key outcomes: indicator and share of income from beekeeping, tree nurseries, gum or resin harvesting, or other lower-environmental impact alternatives. For existing business practices, adoption of climate-smart agricultural technologies, and use of methods to reduce extensive grazing pressure. Indicator and share of income from businesses harmful for the environment such as charcoal production and amount and type of resources extracted from the forest and share of income from these resources.
5. Does Green REAP change environmental (non-business) practices?
• Key outcomes: individual actions to mitigate or adapt to climate change (e.g., tree planting, water storage), participation in community actions to protect forest (e.g., community resource management group, forest management activities), intensity of rules governing forest, observable measures of resource extraction from forest (number of charcoal kilns, trees damaged, number of animals grazing, amount of land cleared for agriculture). Indicator of waste recycling type.
6. In the long term, is Green REAP effective at increasing biomass and reducing deforestation?
• Since we agreed that we are under-powered for a reasonable tree cover and biomass analysis, we will not collect direct measures along these dimensions. However, there might be the possibility in the future with improved satellite coverage to examine long-term effects
7. How does Green REAP compare to other environmental interventions in environmental impacts per dollar spent on the program?