The Impacts of Female Education: Evidence from Malawian Secondary Schools
Last registered on December 12, 2019

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
The Impacts of Female Education: Evidence from Malawian Secondary Schools
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0001243
Initial registration date
May 16, 2016
Last updated
December 12, 2019 12:03 PM EST
Location(s)
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
Cornell University
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
Seoul National University
PI Affiliation
Columbia University
PI Affiliation
KDI School of Public Policy and Management
Additional Trial Information
Status
Completed
Start date
2011-10-03
End date
2016-08-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
This project evaluates a randomized controlled trial of an education support program for girls on rationality and preferences. Between October of 2011 and May of 2012 a baseline survey of 7,971 secondary students in school cohorts 9-11 was implemented across 124 classrooms in 33 public secondary schools in Malawi. One intervention arm of the study was targeted towards the 3,997 female students in the sample and randomly provided to a subgroup one-year tuition support and monthly cash stipends. For this study we have selected the 2811 students who were in grade 9 and 10 in 2012 (since those in grade 11 have graduated and are harder to track). This study aims to understand the impact of this education intervention on rationality and preferences in decision making under risk and over time. These outcomes will be measured using experimental methods based on previous work by one of the authors of the study (Choi, Fisman, Gale, and Kariv, AER, 2007; Choi, Kariv, Müller, and Silverman, AER, 2014).

[Added in 2019 Dec] Further, we implemented phone surveys in 2017 (3rd follow-up) and 2019 (4th follow-up). In these surveys, we measure labor market outcomes and post-schooling training, marital status and partner information, sexual relationships, and attitudes toward male circumcision, pregnancy and contraceptive usage (females only). In the 2019 survey, we additionally introduced two types of outcome variables to understand the impacts of secondary school education on 1) political preference and participation, and 2) health knowledge and health investment behaviors.

The first set of outcome variables capture political preferences and participation. We measured preferences at the second follow-up survey including 1) interest in politics, 2) views on various political issues, and 3) views on political systems, democracy, and elections. We also ask questions on participation in politics in the fourth follow-up survey, which was implemented right after the nation-wide protest related to election fraud in mid 2019.

The second set of outcome variables are health knowledge and investment behaviors. We introduce a simple test to measure level of knowledge about malaria. We also provide an opportunity for study participants to pick up a free multi vitamin (which is worth about $10) in designated shops in the city center to measure health investment behavior.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Choi, Syngjoo et al. 2019. "The Impacts of Female Education: Evidence from Malawian Secondary Schools ." AEA RCT Registry. December 12. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.1243-2.0.
Former Citation
Choi, Syngjoo et al. 2019. "The Impacts of Female Education: Evidence from Malawian Secondary Schools ." AEA RCT Registry. December 12. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/1243/history/58700.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
For the school year 2012-2013, all girl students in the treatment classrooms received one-year school tuition (three semesters) and monthly cash stipends (three times per semester). School tuition and fees per semester on average was 3,500 Malawi kwacha and were directly deposited to each school's account and monthly cash stipends of 300 Malawi kwacha were distributed to treated students, which is equivalent to in total around US$ 70 per year.
Intervention Start Date
2012-04-16
Intervention End Date
2013-08-10
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Main outcome variables include 1) measures of rationality and preferences, and 2) HIV and HSV2 infection.
1. Rationality: We use revealed preferences analysis to check whether subjects’ behavior comply with utility maximization hypothesis. It will be done by checking whether individual behavior is consistent with Generalized Axiom of Revealed Preferences (GARP) and measuring the extent to which it violates GARP. We use various indices of measuring GARP violations, including Afriat’s Critical Cost Efficiency Index (CCEI). This will be separately done in domains of decision making under risk as well as of intertemporal choices.
2. Risk preferences: Experimental data of choices under risk will allow us to measure two distinct parameters of risk attitudes-utility curvature and probability weighting. This will be based on parametric estimation of rank-dependent utility model (Quiggin, 1981; Schmeidler, 1989). We will also use a single, nonparametric measure of risk attitudes.
3. Time preferences: Using experimental data of intertemporal choices, we will measure two parameters of time impatience-present bias and standard discount rate. This will be based on parametric estimation of quasi-hyperbolic discounting utility model (Laibson, 1997). Also, a single, nonparametric measure of time impatience will be used.
4. HIV and HSV2 infection: We will measure infection of HIV and HSV2 by the rapid test kits.
5. Political preference and participation: We measure 1) interest and participation in politics, 2) views on various political issues, and 3) views on political systems, democracy, and elections in the second follow-up survey. In the fourth follow-up survey, we additionally measure participation in recent nation-wide protests related to election fraud.
6. Health knowledge and investment behavior: We measure respondents’ level of knowledge about malaria. We also provide an opportunity for study participants to pick up a free multi vitamin (which value is about $10) in a designated shop to measure health investment behavior.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Years of education, test scores, timing of marriage, age of the partner, sexual behaviors, attitudes toward condom use, cognitive skills (Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices), and non-cognitive traits measured by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), Short Grit Scale, etc.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Treatment: 62 classrooms across 9th ~ 11th grade were randomly selected in 2012 to receive school tuition and monthly cash stipends over one year (three semesters).
Control: 62 classrooms across 9th ~ 11th grade were randomly selected as control group and no school tuition and cash stipends were provided
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization of classrooms in office by computer random number generator
Randomization Unit
Classroom
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
2,811 completed baseline surveys for women (baseline 9th and 10th grade) who will be targeted in this 3-year follow-up study coming from 33schools and 83 classes
Sample size: planned number of observations
We expect to successfully interview about 91% (Effective Survey Rate) of women from the initial baseline for a total of 2,811 women (excluding baseline 11th grade students).
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
treatment: 39 classrooms (1,459 women)
control: 44 classrooms (1,352 women)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

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IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Malawi National Health Science Research Committee (NHSRC)
IRB Approval Date
Details not available
IRB Approval Number
Details not available
IRB Name
Malawi National Health Science Research Committee (NHSRC)
IRB Approval Date
2011-10-03
IRB Approval Number
NHSRC#902
IRB Name
IRB Office, Columbia University
IRB Approval Date
2013-06-30
IRB Approval Number
IRB-AAAL8400(Y1M00)
IRB Name
Cornell Institutional Review Board for Human Participants
IRB Approval Date
2013-10-02
IRB Approval Number
1310004153
Analysis Plan
Analysis Plan Documents
Pre-analysis plan

MD5: c5d920d0f2b72cae21889699f0d0983e

SHA1: d208f22540ef826b4f56bfe58489408a8bb8a5b6

Uploaded At: May 16, 2016

Pre-analysis plan (Second)

MD5: 128f65e52b1d28ff41feafb02236d288

SHA1: a71094cf3d9b354410874f13f15457933876acac

Uploaded At: December 12, 2019

Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
No
Program Files
Program Files
Reports and Papers
Preliminary Reports
Relevant Papers