Students' knowledge, performance, and satisfaction

Last registered on November 17, 2023


Trial Information

General Information

Students' knowledge, performance, and satisfaction
Initial registration date
November 07, 2023

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
November 17, 2023, 7:46 AM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


Primary Investigator

RWI - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Ruhr University Bochum
PI Affiliation
Ruhr University Bochum

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
This study analyses the effect of an color-coded information treatment on undergraduate students’ performance, learning behavior, and satisfaction. As part of an introductory course at a large German university, students receive randomly either a publicly available information on required learning intensity – or on loan periods at the library. Students are then tracked over the first year of undergraduate studies including their course-specific learning effort and their exam performance. Thereby, the study ascertains whether the provision of information at an early stage can affect academic performance.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Hertweck, Friederike, Melissa Kistner and Deborah Maffia. 2023. "Students' knowledge, performance, and satisfaction." AEA RCT Registry. November 17.
Experimental Details


We provide participants with either an information on required study effort or on loan periods at the library.

Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
The main outcome variable is a student’s activity on an online learning platform during the winter term 2023/24. Further outcome variables are the number of his/her exam registrations as well as the ultimate exam performance at the end of the winter term 2023/24.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary outcomes are changes in student behavior and student satisfaction.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The intervention is carried out as part of a lecture at a large German university. At the beginning of the first lecture, all students are informed about the fact that a scientific study on learning and study satisfaction will take place during the lectures. The intervention starts in lecture 4 with a reminder four weeks later. Data analysis will start once all data for the winter term 2023/24 is available, i.e., approximately in May 2024.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization based on seat allocation in the lecture hall.
Randomization Unit
Individual randomisation
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
700 individual undergraduate students
Sample size: planned number of observations
700 individual undergraduate students
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
350 students in treatment and 350 students in control group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

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Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Ruhr University Bochum Ethics Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number