Impact Evaluation of World Bicycle Relief's Mobilized Communities Program in Mumbwa, Zambia

Last registered on April 16, 2024


Trial Information

General Information

Impact Evaluation of World Bicycle Relief's Mobilized Communities Program in Mumbwa, Zambia
Initial registration date
April 04, 2024

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
April 16, 2024, 11:38 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


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Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
PI Affiliation
PI Affiliation
PI Affiliation
World Bicycle Relief

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Many of the world's poor live in rural areas in low-income countries that have limited access to paved roads and transportation. Previous evidence suggests that providing bicycles to school girls reduced the gender gap in access to education in India and Zambia but limited research has been conducted on the effect of providing transportation access to adults in these same settings. To address this evidence gap, we are conducting a randomized controlled trial of World Bicycle Relief's Mobilized Communities program in Mumbwa District, Zambia. 120 livelihoods groups and 273 community service workers were randomly assigned to receive a bicycle in June 2023 or to a control group. We collected baseline data immediately prior to bicycle distribution, and will return for endline data collection in May 2024. We will assess the impact of bicycle ownership on mobility and economic outcomes, including household consumption, asset value, income, and empowerment measures.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Ahmed, Kashif et al. 2024. "Impact Evaluation of World Bicycle Relief's Mobilized Communities Program in Mumbwa, Zambia." AEA RCT Registry. April 16.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details


Bicycle distribution to livelihoods group members and community service workers, accompanied by bicycle supervisory committees in each village, which support monitoring, repairs, and feedback.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Household welfare & wellbeing
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
1. Average monthly income, Income Diversity (# of sources), Business Activity (economic output, # of customers), monthly household consumption, total value assets, value transportation expenditure, percent of households that saved income and amount spent on loans

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
1. Individual and household productivity
2. Access to health services and other livelihood-enhancing activities
3. Empowerment and Social Capital of Women
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
1. Time and distance traveled to common places of interest
2. Service recipients, improved access to health services, travel for business purposes
3. Decision-making capabilities for women, self-esteem, locus of control, gender norms

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We calculated that we needed 120 livelihoods groups and approximately 10 members per livelihoods group to participate in the baseline and endline survey in order to detect effect sizes of 0.20 to 0.30 standard deviations, which are moderate effect sizes for economic outcomes (our CSW sample, though smaller, is randomized at the individual level, and thus has similar statistical power as the livelihoods group sample).
Based on these power calculations, we selected 120 of the 185 eligible livelihoods groups, removing groups from the sampling frame that were very small (fewer than 10 eligible participants) or very large (more than 30 eligible participants) to reduce the likelihood of differently-sized treatment and control groups and to facilitate survey and program logistics. We then removed ineligible members from this list, including members who were over 75 years old, members who were also in our CSW sample, members who were part of the bicycle supervisory committee (BSC), members who were listed under multiple names, and households that were listed in multiple livelihoods groups. We sampled up to 12 members per livelihoods group from the remaining list to participate in the baseline survey. If a livelihoods group had fewer than 12 eligible members, we sampled them all. We designated any remaining members as replacements and randomized the order in which they should be used to replace sampled respondents. We included the full list of 324 CSWs in our baseline sample.
During baseline data collection, we identified additional ineligible participants, including households relocated from the study area and households with BSCs not identified in the original sampling frame. Our final survey sample includes 1,297 Livelihoods group members (LGM) from 120 livelihoods groups and 273 CSWs, or 1,570 total respondents. After baseline data collection, we randomized survey respondents into treatment and control arms. We randomized 120 livelihoods groups into 60 treatment livelihoods groups (comprising 640 members surveyed at baseline) and 60 control livelihoods groups (comprising 657 members surveyed at baseline), stratifying on livelihoods group type (savings, women/gender, cooperative & multipurpose, and youth groups) and average reported distance that members had to travel to the group. We separately randomized the 273 surveyed CSWs into 137 treatment CSWs and 136 control CSWs, stratifying on the sector (health, livelihoods, and environment) and gender.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization using Stata
Randomization Unit
Livelihoods groups (cluster, all eligible members of group receive bicycle) and community service workers (individual level) across project area
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
120 groups of livelihood group workers
Sample size: planned number of observations
12 individuals per group for a total number of 1440 livelihoods group workers and 300 community service workers
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
60 treatment livelihood groups, 60 control livelihood groups, for a total of 1297 livelihoods group members and 273 community service workers (no clusters)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
0.2 standard deviations

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
ERES Converge
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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