Basic Savings and Fertilizer Incentive (SAFI): In the first season, a field officer visited farmers immediately after the harvest and offered to sell them a voucher for fertilizer, at the regular price, with free delivery later in the season. The farmer had to decide during the visit whether or not to participate in the program, and could buy any amount of fertilizer. In the second season, a new group of farmers was selected to receive the basic SAFI treatment. The second season also included additional interventions, structured as follows:
SAFI with ex ante choice of timing: A field officer visited the farmers before the harvest and offered them the opportunity to decide when, during the next growing season, they wanted the officer to return to offer them the SAFI program. They were then visited at the specified time, and offered a chance to buy a voucher for future fertilizer use (as in the Basic SAFI program, as described above).
Free delivery visit later in the season: Same as the basic SAFI intervention, but farmers were visited later in the season. A field officer visited farmers 2-4 months after the harvest (when it is time to apply fertilizer as a top-dressing to the next crop), and offered them the opportunity to buy fertilizer, at the regular price, with free delivery.
Subsidy later in season: A field officer visited the farmers 2-4 months after the harvest (when it is time to apply fertilizer to the next crop) and offered to sell them fertilizer, at a 50 percent subsidy, with free delivery.
In each of the intervention groups, as well as in the comparison group, a random subset of farmers was offered the option to sell a set quantity of maize at a favorable price to the field officer before the program took place.