x

NEW UPDATE: Completed trials may now upload and register supplementary documents (e.g. null results reports, populated pre-analysis plans, or post-trial results reports) in the Post Trial section under Reports, Papers, & Other Materials.
Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up
Last registered on May 15, 2017

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0002215
Initial registration date
May 15, 2017
Last updated
May 15, 2017 11:24 AM EDT
Location(s)
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics
PI Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics
PI Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics
Additional Trial Information
Status
On going
Start date
2013-01-01
End date
2017-12-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Many young girls in developing countries experience early pregnancy and lifelong dependence upon family and partners, which may prevent them from reaching their full productive and social potential. In this paper, we consider two potential barriers to female empowerment: lack of reproductive health knowledge and lack of economic opportunities, and report from a randomized control field experiment of an empowerment program involving 3485 adolescent girls in 80 schools in rural Tanzania. One group was randomly offered a training program on reproductive health, a second group was offered a program on entrepreneurship while a third group was offered both training programs.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Berge, Lars et al. 2017. "Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up." AEA RCT Registry. May 15. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.2215-1.0.
Former Citation
Berge, Lars et al. 2017. "Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up." AEA RCT Registry. May 15. http://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/2215/history/17640.
Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
One group was randomly offered a training program on reproductive health, a second group was offered a program on entrepreneurship while a third group was offered both training programs.
Intervention Start Date
2013-08-01
Intervention End Date
2013-10-01
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
pregnancies, business ownership and sales, safe sex practices, happiness
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
B1. Pregnancy. Indicator variable=1 if the girl is tested positive in the pregnancy test or if she declared that she was pregnant or already had a child in the phone or face-to-face surveys. These are questions 148 and 148a in the phone survey, and A5 in the face-to-face survey.2
B2 = Startup of business/farming. Indicator variable=1 if the girl has business and/or a farming/poultry/livestock activity. These are questions 27, 28 and 29 in the phone survey.
B3= Sales in a normal week from these business and/or farming/poultry/livestock activities. This is question 29a in the phone survey.
If many girls have zero-total sales, we will use the inverse hyperbolic sine transformation of the outcome (see Card and DellaVigna, 2013)

B4 – Safe sex. An index based on questions A10, A12, A13, A15 and A16 in the face-to-face interview. We will standardize the variables, using means and standard deviation from the control group, and sum them with equal weights.
B5=Patience. Indicator variable =1 if the girl chooses to wait for 1 month before receiving her phone voucher (and thereby receiving 10000 TZS instead of receiving 4000 TZS within 24 hours). This is question number 164 in the phone survey.
B6=Risk. A variable equal to the amount that the girl chooses to invest in the coin flip.
This is question 5Q1/5Q2 in the face-to-face interview.
Gender equality
G1 = Indicator variable=1 if the girl responds yes to the following question (that comes from the DHS – Tanzania): “Do you agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she goes out without telling him?” (Yes/No) This is question 151 in the long-term follow-up questionnaire.
G2 = An indicator variable based on the answers to the following questions:
“According to you, in a couple, how should the number of children be decided? Should it be primarily the husband's decision, the wife's decision, or a joint decision?”
(1) The wife, (2) The husband, (3) Both should have an equal say
“According to you, in a relationship, who should decide whether and when to have sex? Should it be primarily the man’s decision, the woman’s decision, or a joint decision?”
(1) The woman, (2) The man, (3) Both should have an equal say
“According to you, when having sex, who should decide whether and when to use a condom? Should it be primarily the man’s decision, the woman’s decision, or a joint decision?”
(1) The woman, (2) The man, (3) Both should have an equal say
We will recode the answers as follow: 1 if woman/wife, -1 if man/husband, 0 if both.
We will then calculate the sum of answers, it will range from -3 to +3. We will calculate X = the median value of this sum in the control group. The final indicator will be equal to 1 if the sum is larger than X, and equal to zero otherwise.
These are questions A8, B11 and B12 in the face-to-face survey.
Empowerment
E1 = Response value to the following question, where we ask whether they agree that “I have little control about things that happen to me”. The response is on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is strongly disagrees and 5 is “strongly agrees”. This is question 149 in the long-term follow-up questionnaire.
Welfare
W1= Response value to the following question, where we ask whether they agree that “I am very happy with my life», using the scale « 1. strongly disagree, 2. disagree, 3. neither agree nor disagree, 4. Agree, 5. strongly agree». This is question 153 in the long-term follow-up questionnaire.

W2 – Infections. An indicator variable equal to one if the respondent reports in the face-to-face interview: (i) stds, (ii) abnormal genital discharges, or (iii) genital sore or ulcer (questions C1, C2 and C3), or if the respondent is tested positive for syphilis.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
4 arms, cluster randomized, 20 clusters per arm, 3485 observations
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
on computer, with stata
Randomization Unit
cluster = school
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
3485 observations from 80 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
2480
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
20 schools per arm
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

There are documents in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access to this information.

Request Information
Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
No
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS