Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up

Last registered on May 15, 2017

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0002215
Initial registration date
May 15, 2017

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 15, 2017, 11:24 AM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Locations

Primary Investigator

Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics
PI Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics
PI Affiliation
NHH - Norwegian School of Economics

Additional Trial Information

Status
On going
Start date
2013-01-01
End date
2017-12-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
Many young girls in developing countries experience early pregnancy and lifelong dependence upon family and partners, which may prevent them from reaching their full productive and social potential. In this paper, we consider two potential barriers to female empowerment: lack of reproductive health knowledge and lack of economic opportunities, and report from a randomized control field experiment of an empowerment program involving 3485 adolescent girls in 80 schools in rural Tanzania. One group was randomly offered a training program on reproductive health, a second group was offered a program on entrepreneurship while a third group was offered both training programs.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
, et al. 2017. "Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up." AEA RCT Registry. May 15. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.2215
Former Citation
, et al. 2017. "Girls’ Economic Empowerment – A Randomized Experiment in Tanzanian Schools 3 years follow up." AEA RCT Registry. May 15. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/2215/history/17640
Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
One group was randomly offered a training program on reproductive health, a second group was offered a program on entrepreneurship while a third group was offered both training programs.
Intervention Start Date
2013-08-01
Intervention End Date
2013-10-01

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
pregnancies, business ownership and sales, safe sex practices, happiness
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
B1. Pregnancy. Indicator variable=1 if the girl is tested positive in the pregnancy test or if she declared that she was pregnant or already had a child in the phone or face-to-face surveys. These are questions 148 and 148a in the phone survey, and A5 in the face-to-face survey.2
B2 = Startup of business/farming. Indicator variable=1 if the girl has business and/or a farming/poultry/livestock activity. These are questions 27, 28 and 29 in the phone survey.
B3= Sales in a normal week from these business and/or farming/poultry/livestock activities. This is question 29a in the phone survey.
If many girls have zero-total sales, we will use the inverse hyperbolic sine transformation of the outcome (see Card and DellaVigna, 2013)

B4 – Safe sex. An index based on questions A10, A12, A13, A15 and A16 in the face-to-face interview. We will standardize the variables, using means and standard deviation from the control group, and sum them with equal weights.
B5=Patience. Indicator variable =1 if the girl chooses to wait for 1 month before receiving her phone voucher (and thereby receiving 10000 TZS instead of receiving 4000 TZS within 24 hours). This is question number 164 in the phone survey.
B6=Risk. A variable equal to the amount that the girl chooses to invest in the coin flip.
This is question 5Q1/5Q2 in the face-to-face interview.
Gender equality
G1 = Indicator variable=1 if the girl responds yes to the following question (that comes from the DHS – Tanzania): “Do you agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she goes out without telling him?” (Yes/No) This is question 151 in the long-term follow-up questionnaire.
G2 = An indicator variable based on the answers to the following questions:
“According to you, in a couple, how should the number of children be decided? Should it be primarily the husband's decision, the wife's decision, or a joint decision?”
(1) The wife, (2) The husband, (3) Both should have an equal say
“According to you, in a relationship, who should decide whether and when to have sex? Should it be primarily the man’s decision, the woman’s decision, or a joint decision?”
(1) The woman, (2) The man, (3) Both should have an equal say
“According to you, when having sex, who should decide whether and when to use a condom? Should it be primarily the man’s decision, the woman’s decision, or a joint decision?”
(1) The woman, (2) The man, (3) Both should have an equal say
We will recode the answers as follow: 1 if woman/wife, -1 if man/husband, 0 if both.
We will then calculate the sum of answers, it will range from -3 to +3. We will calculate X = the median value of this sum in the control group. The final indicator will be equal to 1 if the sum is larger than X, and equal to zero otherwise.
These are questions A8, B11 and B12 in the face-to-face survey.
Empowerment
E1 = Response value to the following question, where we ask whether they agree that “I have little control about things that happen to me”. The response is on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is strongly disagrees and 5 is “strongly agrees”. This is question 149 in the long-term follow-up questionnaire.
Welfare
W1= Response value to the following question, where we ask whether they agree that “I am very happy with my life», using the scale « 1. strongly disagree, 2. disagree, 3. neither agree nor disagree, 4. Agree, 5. strongly agree». This is question 153 in the long-term follow-up questionnaire.

W2 – Infections. An indicator variable equal to one if the respondent reports in the face-to-face interview: (i) stds, (ii) abnormal genital discharges, or (iii) genital sore or ulcer (questions C1, C2 and C3), or if the respondent is tested positive for syphilis.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
4 arms, cluster randomized, 20 clusters per arm, 3485 observations
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
on computer, with stata
Randomization Unit
cluster = school
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
3485 observations from 80 schools
Sample size: planned number of observations
2480
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
20 schools per arm
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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Post-Trial

Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Intervention

Is the intervention completed?
No
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?
No

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials