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Unpacking the determinants of entrepreneurship development and economic empowerment for women
Last registered on February 21, 2014


Trial Information
General Information
Unpacking the determinants of entrepreneurship development and economic empowerment for women
Initial registration date
Not yet registered
Last updated
February 21, 2014 4:10 PM EST
Primary Investigator
World Bank
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
Additional Trial Information
On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
This impact evaluation aims to measure the causal impact of the ILO’s Get Ahead business training programme on the profitability, growth and survival of female-owned businesses in Kenya, and to evaluate whether any gains in profitability come at the expense of other business owners. To do so, the evaluation will use a randomized control trial (RCT) methodology with a two-level randomized experiment: randomized selection of villages, and of individuals within villages. The study works with 3,538 individuals in 157 markets.
In addition to measuring the impact of this training program, individuals assigned to training are also then randomly assigned to one of three different invitation choice structures to measure the extent to which variations in the way in which people are invited to training affect training take-up.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
McKenzie, David and Silvia Paruzzolo. 2014. "Unpacking the determinants of entrepreneurship development and economic empowerment for women." AEA RCT Registry. February 21. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.287-1.0.
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Experimental Details
The training provided is the ILO’s Gender and Entrepreneurship Together – GET Ahead for Women in Enterprise program. This program “differs from conventional business training materials by highlighting essential entrepreneurial skills from a gender perspective, whether applied to starting or improving an individual, family or group business. It addresses the practical and strategic needs of low-income women in enterprise by strengthening their basic business and people management skills. It shows women how to develop their personal entrepreneurial traits and obtain support through groups, networks and institutions dealing with enterprise development” (Bauer et al, 2004). The program began in Thailand in 2001, and over the next decade was used in 18 countries around the developing world.
An objective of the program is to create a “business mind” among low-income women engaged in small-scale businesses. The training methodology is participatory, with practical exercises to teach concepts. For example, women learn about the different types of costs involved in production, and how to account for their own costs through making lemonade; have role play exercises to practice different sales strategies for customers; and make necklaces to discuss a production process and the importance of different factors in product design.
Topics covered included several gender concepts that tend not be emphasized in general business training programs such as: the difference between sex and gender, and the role of cultural constraints in shaping women in business; dividing household and business tasks; and how to network with other women and the role of women’s associations. In addition, it covers a number of topics more typical of standard programs such as recordkeeping and bookkeeping; separating business and household finances; marketing; financial concepts; costing and pricing; generating and fine-tuning new business ideas; setting smart objectives; and traits needed for business success.
The workshop lasts 5 days, and is taught to a group of 20-30 women at a time.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
profitability, sales, and business survivorship
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Business is still operating at the time of the survey. This will be measured directly for those answering the follow-up survey, and assessed via interviewer observation and third-party reporting for those unable to be re-interviewed.

Profits and Sales will be measured as the following set of outcomes:
1. Total sales in the last day, truncated at the 99th percentile. (Baseline Q5.6a).
2. Total sales in the last week, truncated at the 99th percentile. (Baseline Q5.6b)
3. Total sales in the last week of product accounting for largest share of profits, truncated at the 99th percentile. (Baseline Q5.8d (price per unit)*Baseline Q5.8e (number of units sold)).
4. Average weekly profits over the last 2 weeks, truncated at the 99th percentile (Measured at market census). If they only report profits for one of the last two weeks and the other is missing, the week for which data is recorded will be used.
5. Mark-up profits in the last week of product accounting for largest share of profits, truncated at the 99th percentile. (Baseline Q5.8d (price per unit) – 5.8c (cost per unit))*(Baseline Q5.8e (number of units sold)).
6. Third-party valuation of business inventories for sale, truncated at the 99th percentile (baseline administrative data from photos)
7. A standardized profits and sales impact will be obtained by aggregating these different effects as described below in our methods section as a standardized z-score.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Individuals were assigned to treatment and control in a two-stage process: first at the market level, and then at the individual level within market. Then treated individuals were further assigned to one of three treatment invitation types
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
Random selection at the market level, and then individual level within markets
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
157 markets
Sample size: planned number of observations
3,538 individuals
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Markets: 93 treated, 64 control
Individuals: 1173 treated, 988 controls in treated markets, 1377 controls in control markets
Choice treatments: 393 opt-in, 387 active choice, 393 enhanced active choice
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
See pre-analysis plan
IRB Name
Maseno University Ethics Review Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
IRB Name
Innovations for Poverty Action
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number