Primary Outcomes (end points)
Here we describe our hypotheses for the primary outcome domains and the associated outcome variables. As cash transfer programs may affect many areas of children’s lives, we cover a fairly wide range of outcome variables. A more detailed description of the outcome variables is available in the separate pre-analysis plan.
Domain 1: Children’s material well-being.
Hypothesis 1: Hajati cash transfers are labelled as an education intervention. Hence, we expect these transfers to increase household expenditure on children’s nutrition, material items, and education.
1a. Food security:
• Child reported: ate three meals yesterday, did not skip a meal yesterday, ate breakfast yesterday, did not go to bed hungry yesterday
• Household reported: WFP food consumption scale and score above average
1b. Access to basic items:
• Child reported ownership of: pair of summer shoes, pair of winter shoes, warm clothes for the winter, warm blanket for the winter.
Domain 2: Children’s schooling
Hypothesis 2a: Increased expenditures on children due to Hajati result in positive effects on school participation
Hypothesis 2b: Encouraging households to send their children back to school after the winter break lowers school dropout during the school year
Hypothesis 2c: The effects of encouraging households to send their children back to school after the winter break are stronger in households receiving Hajati cash (i.e. β_1>β_2+β_3, see equation 2 below)
2a. School expenditures and school items:
• For each child in school, household’s will be asked to report expenditures on six categories of school-related expenditures. If households cannot answer by category, they will be asked to estimate total school-related expenditures.
• Child reported (for children in school): receives an allowance to purchase lunch or snacks during schooldays, has a schoolbag, has all the stationery needed for school.
2b&c. School attendance:
• Child reported school participation
• Household reported school participation
• Teacher reported (if feasible) school participation and performance in school
• Enumerator observed (if feasible) school participation
Domain 3: Children’s psychosocial well-being:
Hypothesis 3a: Increased expenditures on children and increased school participation lead to improvements perceived social support. Children in school have more opportunities for socializing with their friends. Moreover, a child-focused program may increase adult household members care for children.
Hypothesis 3b: As a result of increased school participation (and possibly social support), children’s mental wellbeing, self-esteem, aspirations, and outlook on life improve.
3a. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support
• Including additional questions developed by research team: My family and household members care about (i) my progress in school, (ii) my future, (iii) my health, and (iv) my feelings
3b1. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)
3b2. Rosenberg’s Self-esteem scale
3b3. Aspirations based on Middle Years Development Instrument
• Plans to graduate from primary school, secondary school, and college or university
3b4. Outlook on life based on Holistic Student Assessment: