Primary Outcomes (end points)
Here we describe our hypotheses for the primary outcome domains and the associated outcome variables. As cash transfer programs may affect many areas of children’s lives, we cover a fairly wide range of outcome variables. For each subdomain, the last bullet point (in Italics) lists what we consider to be our main indicator.
Domain 1: Children’s material well-being.
Hypothesis 1: Hajati cash transfers are labelled as an education intervention. Hence, we expect these transfers to increase household expenditure on children’s nutrition, material items, and education.
1a. Food security:
* Child reported: ate three meals yesterday, did not skip a meal yesterday, ate breakfast yesterday, did not go to bed hungry yesterday
* Number of positive responses on the child reported outcomes (0/4, scaled to range from 0 to 1)
1b. Access to basic items:
* Child reported ownership of: pair of summer shoes, pair of winter shoes, warm clothes for the winter, warm blanket for the winter.
* Number of basic items owned (0/4, scaled to range from 0 to 1)
Domain 2: Children’s schooling
Hypothesis 2a: Increased expenditures on children due to Hajati result in positive effects on school participation
Hypothesis 2b: Encouraging households to send their children back to school after the winter break lowers school dropout during the school year
Hypothesis 2c: The effects of encouraging households to send their children back to school after the winter break are stronger in households receiving Hajati cash (i.e. β_1>β_2+β_3, see equation 2 below)
2a. School attendance:
* Child reported: currently in school (only for the cash arm); attended school last day school was in session
* Household reported: currently in school, missed fewer than 5 days of school during the current schoolyear
* Teacher reported (if feasible): currently in school; attended school during the last three days school was in session; regular attendance since the winter break; learning well and keeping up with the class curriculum
* Enumerator observed (if feasible): In school during spot/check
* Child reports he/she currently attends school (specification 1). Child reports he/she attended school last day school was in session (specification 2).
2b. School items:
* Child reported (for children in school): receives an allowance to purchase lunch or snacks during schooldays, has a schoolbag, has all the stationery needed for school.
* Number of positive responses on the child reported outcomes (0/3, scaled to range from 0 to 1) (0 if the child is not in school)
Domain 3: Children’s psychosocial well-being:
Hypothesis 3a: Increased expenditures on children and increased school participation lead to improvements perceived social support. Children in school have more opportunities for socializing with their friends. Moreover, a child-focused program may increase adult household members care for children.
Hypothesis 3b: As a result of increased school participation (and possibly social support) children’s mental wellbeing, self-esteem, aspirations, and outlook on life improve.
3a. Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support
* Individual items; total score (0/48);
* Additional questions developed by research team. My family and household members care about (i) my progress in school, (ii) my future, (iii) my health, and (iv) my feelings
* Indicator for total perceived social support score above average (0/1)
3b1. Happiness, World Values Survey
* Indicator for responses to the following question take the value Quite happy or Very happy (0/1). Taking all things together, would you say you are…?
3b2. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)
* Individual items; total score (0/60); score indicative of depression I[Total>15];
* Items re-coded to make all positive
* Indicator for depression (0/1)
3b3. Rosenberg’s Self-esteem scale:
* Individual items; Total score (0/30); score indicative of low self-esteem I[Total>15];
* Items recoded to make all positive
* Indicator for low self-esteem (0/1)
3b4. Aspirations based on Middle Years Development Instrument
* Plans to graduate from primary school, secondary school, and college or university
* Plans to graduate from secondary school (0/1)
3b5. Outlook on life based on Holistic Student Assessment:
* Optimism: individual items; total score (0/12);
* Trust: individual items; total score (0/9);
* Assertiveness: individual items; total score (0/12);
* Indicator for total optimism score above average (0/1)