Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
By the end of 2019 (around November), we will apply questionnaires to teachers and students from all of the candidate schools to measure differences in behavior between the control and treatment groups, thus assessing the extent of change in attitudes toward intelligence generated by the participation of the teachers in the five week workshop. These questionnaires measure, through scales, the extent of the participant’s growth mindset according to a multidimensional definition of this concept. We have prepared our questionnaires by adapting sections of different published questionnaires. It was necessary, however, to revise many of the items to our specific context, adjusting their language and references to the realities of Brazilian students and teachers. In addition, it was necessary to translate the questions to Portuguese, a process that involved the translation of the same items simultaneously by two different translators, who then worked together to write a consensual version. Since individual’s mindsets are also manifested in their attitudes, the questionnaires ask additional questions about teachers’ and students’ opinions and behaviors. Finally, each questionnaire included questions aimed at measuring how sincere participants were, in order to deal with potential bias of "social desirability" of the questions. A first version of the questionnaires was applied to the pilot group, in 2018. The analysis of the response data served to generate final versions of the teachers and students’ questionnaires, which will be used in the 2019 data collection.
Furthermore, what happens inside the classroom is central for the students’ learning process. In order to measure changes in teachers’ pedagogical practices as a result of the transformations in their conceptions of intelligence resulting from the mindset workshops, we will use the TEACH+ observation instrument in the classroom. The TEACH+ instrument is designed and adapted to the Brazilian context by specialists of the TEACH and Stallings classroom observation methods (Bruns, Costa & Cunha, 2018; Molina et al. al., 2018). TEACH+ seeks to measure the time teachers spend in the learning processes, the extent to which students remain attentive to their tasks, and the quality of teaching techniques that help to develop students’ social and emotional skills.