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A Design-Based Approach Towards Understanding Gender Differences in Tournament Entry

Last registered on December 02, 2019


Trial Information

General Information

A Design-Based Approach Towards Understanding Gender Differences in Tournament Entry
Initial registration date
November 29, 2019

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
December 02, 2019, 2:55 PM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator

University of Milan

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Lund University

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
We propose a non-parametric method that allows us to identify the factors that drive observed effects using treatment comparisons. We implement this method in a laboratory experiment where participants choose between piece rate and tournament pay and use it to estimate the importance of a number of key drivers of the often-observed gender gap in tournament entry, including the role of selection into tournament and the role of externalities on others’ payoffs typically not considered in the literature. We also compare the results of our method to previous estimates that rely on parametric regression-based method to identify the drivers of the gender gap in willingness to compete. Finally, we intend to use our estimates to design environments in which tournament entry is brought in line with different policy goals.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Bartos, Vojtech and Roel van Veldhuizen. 2019. "A Design-Based Approach Towards Understanding Gender Differences in Tournament Entry." AEA RCT Registry. December 02.
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Payment method choice (either binary or a price-list)
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
The experiment consists of three rounds. In each round, participants work on a real-effort task that consists of adding 5 two-digit numbers for 3 minutes. In round 1, participants are paid a piece-rate that gives them 10 ECU per correct answer. In round 2, participants are paid a tournament rate of 20 ECU per correct answer if they beat the score of another participant. In round 3, participants make eight choices between various incentive schemes; one of these choices is randomly selected before participants work on the task. At the end of the experiment, one of the three rounds is randomly chosen for payment.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
400 individuals
Sample size: planned number of observations
400 individuals, treatments within-subject
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
400 individuals, treatments within-subject
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
With the intended sample size, we have a power of approximately .76 to detect a 10pp reduction in the gender gap in tournament entry assuming a baseline gap similar to Van Veldhuizen (2018) and a conservative estimate of around 10% of participants that change their decision across treatment for reasons that are orthogonal to the treatment.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Intervention Completion Date
December 11, 2019, 12:00 +00:00
Data Collection Complete
Data Collection Completion Date
December 11, 2019, 12:00 +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials