Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Apart from the type and frequency of street sexual harassment, street patrolling may also affect other aspects of women like reporting behavior, participation in social activities or travel routes taken by altering their safety perception about locations. Therefore, we will look at the following variables.
• Change in type of harassment: We hypothesize that increased street patrolling will lead to a decrease in the incidence of street sexual harassment. However, we would also like to see if increased patrolling has differential effects on different forms of harassment experienced by women. Data from the EOS will be used to analyze the change in the type of harassment observed at the hotspot, if any.
• Reporting of incidence to police or other changes in pro-active behaviors: Findings from the baseline victimization survey indicate that the reporting rate of street sexual harassment is only 7.5 percent. Increased police patrolling, especially in the visible arm will increase the visibility of police. We thus hypothesize that reporting rates of GBV-related crimes may increase with increased police visibility as women may find it easier to approach police. We intend to test this hypothesis using data on reporting rates from the victimization survey. To measure other proactive behaviors, we will construct - through the observational data - a measure as to whether victimized women react more proactively. This will be done through question answers (1/0) to whether ”Does the victim...” did any of the following: i) ”called someone over the phone to help”, ii) ”called out the perpetrator directly”, , iii) ”informed the person accompanying her at the location”, iv) ”use any form of self-defense”, or v) ”ask for help from bystanders”.
• Incidence of harassment while traveling: As a part of the EOS, enumerators also make observations on sexual harassment while traveling between two hotspots, i.e., in public transport like buses, shared autos, trains, etc. This enables us to analyze whether the effect of hotspot-level police patrolling on incidence of sexual harassment is local, i.e., it reduces sexual harassment only at the hotspot-level, or whether it reduces sexual harassment faced by women in public transport as well.
• Labor Market Choices: To measure if increased police presence leads women to modify their labor market choices, we will analyze the ‘hours’ spent at workplace. This variable will be obtained from the victimization survey where women are asked to report their time of arrival/departure to/from the workplace.
• Participation in social activities: An improvement in safety perception of public places may induce women to step out more frequently and may also alter the time at which they are present in public places. For example, street police patrolling after in late evening may enable women to step out in late evening because a sense of safety induced by police presence. To record this, as a part of the Victimization survey we ask women whether they engage in any of the following social activities:
– Going out for a movie with female friends – Shopping for rations
– Attend recreational classes
– Visit relative’s home
– Got out to explore the city
Further, we also ask them about the time at which they carry out each of these activities.
Through the baseline and endline victimization survey, we will capture the change in the participation in activities as well as the time at which these are conducted.