Primary Outcomes (end points)
We assess the impact of the baraza intervention on a range of outcomes related to agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure. For each sector, key outcomes are definded, and combined into sector level indices, and in a single index following Anderson (2008). For agriculture, a first outcome looks at access to extension at home. In particular, we estimate the percentage of households in our sample who report that they were visited by an expert (e.g. crop or livestock extension agent, or community based facilitator or another experienced farmer) at the home in the last 12 months (the variable named “baraza.B2” in the end-line questionnaire). Second, we consider the proportion that reports visiting extension offices, demonstration sites or model (baraza.B3 or baraza.B3.3). A third outcome variable is the presence of NAADS/OWC supported farmer groups is also a useful indicator of agricultural service delivery in Uganda (baraza.B4.1). Further down impact pathway is actual change in the use of modern inputs by farmers in areas where agricultural related services are improved as a consequence of the baraza interventions. For instance, we also estimate the proportion of households in our sample that report to have used inorganic fertilizers (DAP, Urea, NPK, Foliar, TSP, SSP, MOP) or improved seed in the last 12 months (baraza.B1 or baraza.B1.5). We also include two outcomes that look at public services related to crop marketing. First, we estimate the proportion of households in our sample that report they received help in marketing their produce from the village procurement committee/village farmers forum in the last 12 months. (baraza.B5.2) Second, we ask a similar question to assess the proportion of households in our sample that report they received help in marketing their produce from a cooperative or association in the last 12 months. (baraza.B5.3).
For Infrastructure, a first outcome we consider is whether the household uses unprotected water source during dry season (yes/no). This is measured as the share of households that report that the main source of drinking water during the dry season is rain water, surface water, water obtained from a tube well or borehole, an unprotected dug well or and unprotected spring. (baraza.C1). Next, we look at the distance to the primary water source (baraza.C1.2) and waiting time at the water source (baraza.C1.3), both during the dry season. We also ask if there is a water user committee in the village (baraza.C2.3). We include one question related to road infrastructure. We ask how far the household is located from the nearest all weather road (in km; baraza.A6).
For the health sector, the first two outcomes we consider attempt to assess changes in access or use of public health facilities. A first indicator measures the use of public health facilities for illness. In particular, we construct an indicator that is true if the household head responds that treatment would be sought in a health center 2, 3, 4 or in a regional referral hospital if a member of your household had fever (baraza.D2). A similar indicator attempts to assess the use of the public health system for maternal health care, and asks if treatment would be sought in a health center 2, 3, 4 or in a regional referral hospital if a member of your household was to give birth (baraza.D2.4). Next, we ask if a Village Health Team is present in the village (baraza.D3). We also consider distance to the nearest government health facility, measured in km (baraza.D4.2). We then ask whether any household members were unable to work or go to school due to an illness in the past one year (baraza.D1). We then ask how long did you have to wait before being attended (in min) (baraza.D4.6). Finally, we ask if a traditional health practitioner was visited in the last year (baraza.D6).
For the education sector, impact is assessed by the following outcomes: the number of children within the households that attend public school (either Universal Primary Education (UPE; baraza.E1.2) or Universal Secondary Education (USE; baraza.E2.1)); distance to primary or secondary school (or the average if both are reported; baraza.E1.2 and baraza.E2.2); whether the primary or secondary school attended by any of their children has a complete boundary fence (baraza.E1.4 and baraza.E1.4); and whether there is a water source available in the school (baraza.E1.6 and baraza.E2.6). We also look at how the school is managed, and how stakeholders are involved. For instance, we look at whether the school has a School Management Committee (SMC) (baraza.E1.10 for primary schools, baraza.E2.10 for secondary schools) and consider the percentage of households that are informed about SMC meetings (baraza.E1.13 and baraza.E2.13). Finally, we ask households if an inspector had visited the school in the year before the survey (baraza.E1.18 and baraza.E2.18).