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Born or made? Military conscription and sexism
Last registered on April 08, 2020

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Born or made? Military conscription and sexism
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0005398
Initial registration date
March 24, 2020
Last updated
April 08, 2020 4:14 PM EDT
Location(s)
Region
Primary Investigator
Affiliation
Universidad de San Andres
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
Universidad de San Andres & University of Wisconsin-Madison
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2020-04-01
End date
2020-05-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
We propose to examine whether the exposure of young men to military conscription can change their sexist attitudes and behaviors. To address potential endogeneity concerns we exploit the conscription draft in Argentina. We combine administrative data from the draft with data from a purposely-designed survey on sexist attitudes and behaviors.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Gibbons, M. Amelia and Martin Rossi. 2020. "Born or made? Military conscription and sexism." AEA RCT Registry. April 08. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.5398-1.4000000000000001.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
From 1901 through 1995, military conscription in Argentina was mandatory. The length of service was a minimum of one year (the Army and the Air Force) and a maximum of two years (the Navy). Service began with a three-month basic instruction period during which recruits learned military norms and were exposed to combat training. After that, conscripts were allocated to a military unit to perform a specific duty, not necessarily related to military training.

In earlier times, males served in the conscription at the age of 21; later, this was changed to age 18. The cohort born in 1955 was the last cohort starting military service at age 21; the cohort born in 1958 was the first cohort starting serving at age 18. The cohort born in 1976 faced the draft lottery but eventually was not drafted as conscription was halted. Our analysis focuses on cohorts that served at age 18, that is, on cohorts born between 1958 and 1975.

The eligibility of young males for military service was randomly determined, using the last three digits of their national IDs. Each year a lottery assigned a number between 1 and 1,000 to each combination of the last three ID digits. The lottery system was run in a public session administered by the National Lottery. Results were broadcasted over the radio and published in the main newspapers.
After the lottery, individuals were called for physical and mental examinations. Later on, the government announced a cutoff number. Individuals whose ID number had been assigned a lottery number higher than the cutoff number (and who had passed the medical examination) were mandatorily called to military conscription.
Intervention Start Date
2020-04-01
Intervention End Date
2020-04-30
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Physical violence and non-physical abuse
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
For analyzing sexist behaviors we use scales from published psychology papers. Each behavior outcome relates to a group of statements and each statement has a score that depends on how often the person carries out the behavior. We construct a separate index for each of the 2 outcomes.
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Attitudes towards homosexuality, hostile sexism, old-fashioned sexism, traditional gender roles, sexual machismo, justification of sexism and violence.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
For analyzing sexist attitudes we use scales from published psychology papers. Each attitude outcome relates to a group of statements and each statement has a score that depends on how much the person agrees or disagrees with the claim. We construct a separate index for each of the 6 outcomes.
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
Exploiting the random assignment of eligibility into the Argentine military conscription, we aim to identify whether being conscripted affects individuals’ subsequent attitudes and bahaviors towards sexism. To answer this question, we combine administrative data on the draft with data from a purposely-design survey on personality traits and beliefs.
We obtained lottery draft results and cutoff numbers from Galiani, Rossi, and Schargrodsky (2011). Using the lottery draft results and the cutoff numbers by cohort, we can then define the dummy variable Draft Eligible, which equals one for men whose ID is above the cutoff and therefore draft-eligible, and zero otherwise. This Draft Eligible variable identifies the intention-to-treat for the population. We also construct the treatment variable Conscription that takes the value one when an individual actually served in the military (obtained from the survey).
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Public lottery
Randomization Unit
Individuals
Was the treatment clustered?
No
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
0
Sample size: planned number of observations
Depends on survey take up
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Depends on survey take up and cutoff numbers
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
Education and Social/Behavioral Science IRB - University of Wisconsin - Madison
IRB Approval Date
2020-03-23
IRB Approval Number
IRB 2020-0122
Analysis Plan

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Post-Trial
Post Trial Information
Study Withdrawal
Intervention
Is the intervention completed?
No
Is data collection complete?
Data Publication
Data Publication
Is public data available?
No
Program Files
Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials
Relevant Paper(s)
REPORTS & OTHER MATERIALS