Demand and supply factors constraining the emergence and sustainability of an efficient seed system - three experiments in Uganda

Last registered on November 21, 2022

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Demand and supply factors constraining the emergence and sustainability of an efficient seed system - three experiments in Uganda
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0006361
Initial registration date
August 25, 2020

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
August 25, 2020, 1:55 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.

Last updated
November 21, 2022, 4:02 AM EST

Last updated is the most recent time when changes to the trial's registration were published.

Locations

Region

Primary Investigator

Affiliation
Ifpri

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
KU Leuven
PI Affiliation
Wageningen University
PI Affiliation
NARO
PI Affiliation
Makerere University
PI Affiliation
IFPRI
PI Affiliation
ISSD

Additional Trial Information

Status
Completed
Start date
2020-09-15
End date
2022-08-01
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Abstract
Agricultural technology remains under-adopted among smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. We investigate how the quality of an agricultural technology – improved maize seed – affects its adoption. The research entails three hypotheses that will be tested in a series of randomized controlled trials among agro-input dealers and smallholder farmers in Uganda. In a first hypothesis, quality concerns that constrain uptake are caused by information inefficiencies at the level of the agro-input dealer, who is assumed to lack knowledge about proper storage and handling. An intensive training program is expected to increase improved maize seed quality and subsequent adoption by farmers. A second hypothesis conjectures that information asymmetry between seller and buyer with respect to the quality of seed – a classic lemons technology – leads to under-adoption. We implement a crowd-sourced information clearinghouse similar to yelp.com to test this hypothesis. This hypothesis targets the interaction between farmers and input dealers. A third hypothesis targets farmers directly, as sub-optimal adoption is assumed to be caused by learning failures: Farmers might attribute disappointing outcomes to poor input quality, while in reality many input dimensions like the time of planting, weeding and fertilizer application co-determine outcomes. An ICT-mediated information campaign that stresses the importance of paying attention to all input dimensions is implemented to test this hypothesis.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Bagamba, Fredrick et al. 2022. "Demand and supply factors constraining the emergence and sustainability of an efficient seed system - three experiments in Uganda." AEA RCT Registry. November 21. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.6361-3.0
Sponsors & Partners

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information
Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
3 interventions will be implemented in a 2x2x2 factorial trial. A first intervention consists of an intensive agro-input dealer training to improve seed handling and storage at this level. A second intervention consists of a crowd-sources information clearing house that will be set up at the catchment area level.
Intervention Start Date
2021-02-02
Intervention End Date
2022-03-01

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
quantity of quality seed sold by input dealers, adoption rates of quality seed by farmers
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
quantity (kg) of improved seed varieties of maize (hybrids and OPV) sold by the input dealer over the last agricultural season; indicator value =1 of farmer used improved seed (hybrid of OPV) obtained from an agro-input dealer on any maize plot

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
input dealer skill/knowledge, farmers' seed quality perception, farmers' input dealer quality perception, farmer skill/knowledge, yield/profit/income/consumption
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
To test the three hypotheses, we will implement three interventions that are combined in a field experiment where various treatment and control groups are randomly assigned to either a treatment or control condition. The randomized control trial (RCT) will take the form of a 2x2x2 factorial design, with each intervention corresponding to one hypothesis. To test the first hypothesis, a random sub-sample of input dealers will receive training on proper seed handling and storage. To test the second hypothesis, a rating system will be set up among a random sub-sample catchment areas of input dealers catchment areas, and farmer and input dealers will receive feedback on the ratings before the start of the planting season. To test the third hypothesis, a video that points out the importance of combining improved seed with other inputs and careful crop management will be shown to a random subset of farmers.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
The randomization of the interventions are the catchment area level were done by a computer based on a census of input dealers. The randomization of the farmers will be done through se
Randomization Unit
the first and second treatment are implemented at the catchment area level. For the third treatment, treatment status will also be determined by the computer, but a geographic sampling approach will be used where enumerators are supplied with gps coordinate from where they have to find the closest household to include in the study.
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
112 catchment areas
Sample size: planned number of observations
3200
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
in 56 catchment areas, treatment 1 will be implemented and in 56 not; in 56 catchment areas, treatment 2 will be implemented and in 56 not; 1600 farmers will receive treatment 3 and 1600 farmers will serve as control.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
159 kilograms sold (standard deviation of 454 kilograms); MDE for adoption is < 6.5% (from a base of63 percent)
IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IFPRI IRB #00007490 FWA #00005121
IRB Approval Date
2019-06-05
IRB Approval Number
DSG-19-0627
IRB Name
Makerere University School of Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee
IRB Approval Date
2020-05-19
IRB Approval Number
MAKSS REC 05.19.291
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents

Registered report (all tables)

MD5: fe26189eea3bb74f842da7281b60408a

SHA1: bbc50b7035180d7bb23b71af5372083e328cd89d

Uploaded At: January 06, 2022

pre-analysis plan

MD5: c1f7b44ddb3ba6878e2da798c522d175

SHA1: 2d10fc2f961a6ace96df8e4fa7fd98d48dfec129

Uploaded At: May 04, 2021

Post-Trial

Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information

Intervention

Is the intervention completed?
Yes
Intervention Completion Date
April 01, 2022, 12:00 +00:00
Data Collection Complete
Yes
Data Collection Completion Date
August 01, 2022, 12:00 +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
350
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
No
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
3400
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?
Yes

Program Files

Program Files
Yes
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials

Description
midline report
Citation
Bagamba, Fredrick et al. 2022. "Demand and supply factors constraining the emergence and sustainability of an efficient seed system - three experiments in Uganda." AEA RCT Registry. November 21. 2022. "Registration Entry Title: midline report." AEA RCT Registry. November 21 https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.6361-3.0
File
midline_report.pdf

MD5:

SHA1:

Uploaded At: November 21, 2022

Description
endline report
Citation
Bagamba, Fredrick et al. 2022. "Demand and supply factors constraining the emergence and sustainability of an efficient seed system - three experiments in Uganda." AEA RCT Registry. November 21. 2022. "Registration Entry Title: endline report." AEA RCT Registry. November 21 https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.6361-3.0
File
endline_report.pdf

MD5:

SHA1:

Uploaded At: November 21, 2022