Primary Outcomes (end points)
We will collect 2 rounds of midline and 1 round of endline data from phone surveys and 3 rounds of public-space observations of mask use and social distancing behavior in villages and markets to test:
H1: whether free mask distribution increases the proper use of masks in public spaces,
H2: which type of messaging / channel is most effective in increasing mask usage,
H3: whether educational interventions spill over within village and social networks,
H4: whether (potential) increased mask use leads to changes in social distancing behavior, health and socio-economic outcomes
Our primary outcome for H1/H2 is the share of individuals wearing masks correctly (i.e. covering both mouth and nose) as observed in public places by our enumerators. Self-reported mask use is secondary, as our earlier research suggest such data may not be reliable due to social desirability bias.
To test channels through which interventions increase mask use (H2), we also collect detailed data on respondents' knowledge of different aspects of covid-19 transmission, symptoms and risk factors, as well as their views on the social desirability of masks.
For H3, we additionally collect data on how information on covid-19 and mask use spreads within villages and social networks, such as who individuals talked to about these issues, how often and when.
For H4, we collect data on social distancing from both self-reports (including the number of in-person interactions, travel patterns, attendance at markets and religious services, etc.) and public observations (including whether an observed individual maintains at least 2m of distance while interacting with others). In addition, we collect detailed data on households' economic activities, including income, self-employment, employment, consumption, food security. Lastly, we collect data on covid-related symptoms, testing and test-outcomes for covid-19 and other health-seeking behaviors and health outcomes.
We will further pre-specify these outcomes in a registered pre-analysis plan before conducting any data analysis.