Back to History Current Version

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Designed Interventions on Improving Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Contacts During Pregnancy

Last registered on January 27, 2021


Trial Information

General Information

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Designed Interventions on Improving Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Contacts During Pregnancy
Initial registration date
January 27, 2021

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
January 27, 2021, 5:12 PM EST

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.



Primary Investigator


Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Antenatal care (ANC) is critical for the mother and child’s health. WHO recommends 8 ANC contacts and Indian policy recommends at least 4 ANC contacts, with both pushing for the first contact to be within the first trimester. These requirements are not met in many districts in India due to a variety of reasons. Here, as a Phase I experiment, we plan to remotely test different types of framing of message interventions in order to improve attendance of 4 ANC contacts in two districts in Uttar Pradesh by measuring intentionality to avail ANC contacts and the value perception of ANC services.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Shashidhara, Sneha. 2021. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Designed Interventions on Improving Utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC) Contacts During Pregnancy." AEA RCT Registry. January 27.
Experimental Details


Testing the different framing of the intervention messages: gain frame, loss frame, renaming frame, joyful testimonial frame, non-pecuniary frame, heuristics and mental-model frame, and control - in order to increase the intention of availing ANC services as well as the value perception of these services, among women of reproductive age (18-45).
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Intention of availing ANC services and value perception of ANC services using both stated and reveal preference questions
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Intention through likelihood ratings and an economic game. Value perception through price estimation.

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Knowledge, risk perception, perceived norm, self-efficacy, trust-efficacy, and past behavior
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Each construct is estimated by all the questions referring to that construct. Questions are of the likert-scale rating type, binary yes-no, numerical input, or choosing one of the the predetermined options.

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Our design is a framed field experiment. Women of reproductive age (18-45 yrs.) are eligible and randomly assigned to one of the 7 groups (6 treatment arms and one control). Recruitment is followed by one phone survey that includes both treatment deployment (playing an audio message specific to each arm) and a questionnaire to measure intentionality, value perception, knowledge, attitudes, past behavior, and standard demographics.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Participants who give consent are to be assigned to one of 7 groups using stratified randomization. Stratified random sampling process ensures that equal numbers of pregnant and nonpregnant women are assigned to the different treatment arms. Similarly, assignment to treatment arms is controlled for age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-45), number of children (no children, children) and primary source of medical care during pregnancy in their households (ANC, private care, home remedies). Done in an office on a computer.
Randomization Unit
At the individual level
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
7 groups.
Sample size: planned number of observations
700 women
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
100 women per group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
With a sample of 100 per group, a 95% confidence interval, and power of 0.8, we can expect to detect a group difference with an effect size of 0.4 (Cohen’s d) or above.

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Institutional Review Board, Ashoka University
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

Analysis Plan Documents


Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

There is information in this trial unavailable to the public. Use the button below to request access.

Request Information


Is the intervention completed?
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials