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Enhancing Female Entrepreneurship through Cash Grants: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Tunisia
Last registered on February 17, 2021


Trial Information
General Information
Enhancing Female Entrepreneurship through Cash Grants: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Tunisia
Initial registration date
February 15, 2021
Last updated
February 17, 2021 10:34 AM EST
Primary Investigator
The World Bank Group
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Oxford
PI Affiliation
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Additional Trial Information
On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
We use a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of cash grants to vulnerable and poor women in rural Tunisia. The objective is to study whether cash grants can alleviate capital constraints and thereby favor both female entrepreneurship and female empowerment. Beneficiary women were offered an unconditional cash grant of USD 551 (in PPP terms) and a financial training. In addition, a subset of beneficiaries were randomized into a gender dialogue component whereby they could invite their male partner to the training. The objective is to study whether this component can mitigate any negative perceptions or resentments that male partners may have as a result of female economic independence through the grant.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Gazeaud, Jules, Eric Mvukiyehe and Olivier Sterck. 2021. "Enhancing Female Entrepreneurship through Cash Grants: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Tunisia." AEA RCT Registry. February 17. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.7136-1.0.
Experimental Details
The experiment is composed of two interventions:
1. Unconditional cash grant. Beneficiary women were offered cash grants of TND 634 (USD 551 in PPP terms, USD 227 in nominal terms) and a financial training. Prior to this experiment, these women participated in the randomized evaluation of a labor-intensive public works program.
2. Gender dialogue component. A subset of cash grant recipients were randomized into a gender dialogue treatment whereby they could invite their male partner (i.e. their spouse or a sibling) to the training.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Female businesses and income generating activities:
a. Runs a business.
b. Business profit.
c. Number of employees.
d. Financial access.
e. Total employment.
f. Total income from employment.

2. Female empowerment:
a. Women’s agency (index constructed using woman role in the decisionmaking of 16 activities).
b. Perspectives on gender role (index constructed using views on 28 statements).
c. Perspectives on women abilities for economic activities (index constructed using views on 10 activities).
d. Perception of gender-based violence (index constructed using views on 11 statements).
e. Perspectives on reproductive health (index constructed using views on 9 statements).
f. Quality of communication between spouses (index constructed using questions on the frequency of communication in 9 areas).
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
1. Household income generating activities:
a. Household head has an income generating activity.
b. Income of household head.
c. Other household members have an income generating activity.
d. Income of other household members.

2. Household material well-being:
a. Food expenditures.
b. Non-food expenditures.
c. Economic difficulties and coping mechanisms.
d. Assets.

3. Migration.

4. Non-material well-being:
a. Cantrill’s lader.
b. Psychological well-being.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
We use an individual randomized controlled trial
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer
Randomization Unit
Was the treatment clustered?
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
80 imadas (communities)
Sample size: planned number of observations
2,000 women
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
1. Control group: 1,000 women
2. Unconditional cash grants: 500 women
3. Unconditional cash grants + gender dialogue sessions: 500 women
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
IRB Name
Solutions IRB
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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