Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Regarding the measurement of empowerment, we adopted the conceptual approach of Kabeer, which incorporates both the personal and political dimensions of empowerment, and developed indicators that captured "women's sense of self‐worth and identity, their willingness to question their own subordinate status, their control over their own lives and their voice and influence within the family". We constructed indicators of empowerment, adapted from the Indian NFHS4 whenever possible to facilitate comparability, which encompassed four domains: (1) decision making within the family and control over income (e.g., Who decides how the money you earn will be used: mainly you, mainly your husband, or you and your husband jointly?); (2) freedom of movement in the public domain (e.g., Are you usually permitted to go to the following places on your own, only if someone accompanies you, or not at all?); (3) participation in community and public life (e.g., Are you a member of any type of association, group or club which holds regular meetings?); (4) and views and attitudes on critical gender issues (e.g., Please tell me if you agree or disagree with each statement: A married woman should be allowed to work outside the home if she wants to). We tested the face validity of the questionnaire by consulting individuals with local expertise and added, deleted, and revised existing indicators. We pilot tested the questionnaire in sample of approximately 200 women. The questionnaire was modified accordingly based on the results of the pilot study. A data reduction technique (i.e., factor analysis) will be used to provide a summary score. We plan to test the reliability of empowerment measures during the second survey wave.
Use of time was measured using a structured questionnaire, adapted from a study by Beaman et al. (2012), that asked respondents whether they spent any time in the past 24 hours on specific activities (e.g., gathering fuel or firewood), how much time they spent on each activity, and whether this amount reflected the usual amount of time spent on the activity. The questionnaire also asks whether respondents were paid in cash or in-kind for the activities they engaged in.
The survey asks about employment experiences, including whether respondents work, their occupation, the type of work, the quantity of work, whether they are paid for their work in cash or in-kind, and what they do with their children while working. We will ask about household income received in the past 12 months from various categories (e.g., agricultural income, business income, rents, remittances, government payments). Household wealth will be measured using a series of questions about ownership of specific assets (e.g., telephone, bicycle, radio), environmental conditions (e.g., type of water source, sanitation facilities), and housing characteristics, (e.g., number of rooms, materials used for housing construction). Additionally, we will ask respondents about savings accounts held by household members, including for each account the type of account, its purpose, the total value, and whether the respondent can use the account to make purchases.
With respect to anthropometry, the equipment used will be calibrated daily before home or hospital visits. Two anthropometrists will record data independently and compare values. The average of these two values is taken, and any large discrepancies can be resolved by a first repeat measurement. Length is measured using a length board (sometimes called an infantometer) placed on a flat, stable surface such as a table. To measure height, a height board (sometimes called a stadiometer) will be mounted at a right angle between a level floor and against a straight, vertical surface such as a wall or pillar. If a child is less than 2 years old (or if age is unknown, less than 85 cm), recumbent length will be measured. If the child is aged 2 years or older (or if age is unknown, greater than 85 cm) and able to stand, standing height will be measured. The child's shoes, socks, and hair ornaments will be removed. Braids will be undone if they will interfere with the measurement of length/height. The Shorr height board is will be used to measure recumbent length. Adult and child heights will be measured using the Harpenden Portable Stadiometer (range 65-206 cm). For weight measurement tared weighing will be performed for children less than 2 years old. If the child is 2 years or older the will be weighed alone (if the child can stand still). The SECA 814 digital scale (up to 200kg) will be used to measure child weight. To measure arm circumference, any clothing covering the child's arms will be removed. The midpoint of the child's upper left arm will be calculated and marked with pen on the child’s arm. The child's arm will be straightened and the tape used to measure the circumference. While measuring, the tape should be flat on the child's arm. The measurement should be recorded to the nearest 0.1 cm. Circumferences will be measured using a metal tape (range 0-200 cm). The suggested instrument for measuring mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is the MUAC Tape (UNICEF Item No. 145600 Arm circumference insertion tape/pack of 50).