Je suis un patriot! An experimental analysis of soccer, ethnicity, and nationalism amongst the Akan in Côte d’Ivoire

Last registered on September 20, 2021

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Je suis un patriot! An experimental analysis of soccer, ethnicity, and nationalism amongst the Akan in Côte d’Ivoire
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0008232
Initial registration date
September 20, 2021
Last updated
September 20, 2021, 6:12 PM EDT

Locations

Primary Investigator

Affiliation
Bucknell University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

Additional Trial Information

Status
In development
Start date
2021-09-25
End date
2021-10-15
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Abstract
This study will examine the degree to which Africans have nationalist attitudes versus ethnic based views of life. Since independence swept Africa in the late 1950s, many scholars and policymakers have thought that nationalist identities were weak at best in Africa. Many nationalist movements indeed fell apart very quickly after independence was granted and identities were instead it seemed about ethnic identities. Ethnicity in Africa has been shown to affect a number of important processes including economic growth, conflict, and voting, and often to the detriment of promoting development in general. The Ivory Coast is a good example as it has seen electoral violence and broad-based policies of exclusion that have fallen sharply along ethnic lines in the past. Understanding the determinants of broader nationalist attitudes versus more parochial ethnic attitudes is critical for African political and economic development. Existing research focuses on attitudes across ethnic groups. This study addresses a critical gap in the literature as it focused on attitudes both across and within an ethnic group, namely the Akan in the Ivory Coast. As a meta-ethnicity, the Akan have sub-groups in both Ghana and the Ivory Coast. This study will examine three groups including the Agni, Baoule, and Nzema and the degree to which their identities fall along nationalist versus ethnic lines. All are Akan but of different sub-ethnicities. Do identities change as they are presented with different treatments about a series of questions regarding their sub-group. Block sampling will be used within the cities of Aboisso, Bassam, and Yamoussoukro serving as blocks for the Agni, Nzema, and Baoule respectively. Blocks will be randomized with four treatments: one treatment will be a statement from the most famous Ivorian soccer player Didier Drogba about living together as all Ivorians following the 2006 World Cup, and the other treatment will be famous people from each subgroup including Félix Houphouët-Boigny (Baoulé treatment), Freddy Meiway (Nzema/Apollo treatment), Dr. Eugène Aka-Aouélé (Agni treatment). A control group will receive no treatment. Outcomes will be a series of questions about attitudes toward three questions about the Ivory Coast and then finally a question about making a donation to a local versus national orphanage. Experiments will begin on 9/25 until 10/15.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Doces, John. 2021. "Je suis un patriot! An experimental analysis of soccer, ethnicity, and nationalism amongst the Akan in Côte d’Ivoire." AEA RCT Registry. September 20. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.8232-1.0
Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
The following four treatments will be randomly assigned:

Treatment 1

After qualifying for the 2006 World Cup, Didier Drogba said of the Ivorian national soccer team: "From the north, south, centre, and west, we proved today that all Ivorians can coexist and play together with a shared aim." Are you proud to be an Ivorian like Didier Drogba? [Not at all; Somewhat; A lot] n=144

Treatment 2

Félix Houphouët-Boigny, an Akan of Baoulé descent, made his birthplace Yamoussoukro the capital of Côte d’Ivoire, and built the world’s largest and most beautiful cathedral there. Are you proud to be an Akan like Félix Houphouët-Boigny? [Not at all; Somewhat; A lot] n=144

Treatment 3

Freddy Meiway, an Akan of Nzema descent, is a famous musician who created the zoblazo music style that is now famous all over Africa and other parts of the world. Are you proud to be an Akan like Freddy Meiway? [Not at all; Somewhat; A lot] n=144

Treatment 4

Dr. Eugène Aka-Aouélé, an Akan of Agni descent, is current Minister of Health and Public Hygiene and is world renowned for his leadership in public health. Are you proud to be an Akan like Dr. Eugène Aka Aouélé? [Not at all; Somewhat; A lot] n=144

Control Group

No picture/question n=144

Note: All treatments will have a picture of the person and the statement.

Intervention Start Date
2021-09-25
Intervention End Date
2021-10-15

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
i. [Affective] Imagine that a story in the international media criticized Ivorians. Which of the following statements is closest to how you would feel?
1. I would not like it, but it would not feel like a personal insult.
2. I would not like it, and I would feel personally insulted.

ii. [Behavioral] Which of the following statements is closest to your view?
1. How well all other Ivorians are doing does not really affect how well I am doing.
2. How well I am doing depends on how well all other Ivorians are doing.

iii. [Cognitive] Which of the following statements is closest to your view?
1. Even though there is a lot of cultural variety amongst Ivorians, we are more the same than we are different.
2. Because there is a lot of cultural variety among Ivorians, there is very little that makes us the same.

iv. Participation fee =500cfa
1. Would you like to donate your participation fee of 500 CFA to a local orphanage?
2. Would you like to donate your participation fee of 500 CFA to a national orphanage?
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
Experiment will follow a block design. Blocks will correspond to the cities of Aboisso, Bassam, and Yamoussoukro where each has primary populations of Agni, Nzema, and Baoule respectively. Within each block, enumerators will follow random walk randomly selecting respondent according to pre-determined flip of the coin and interviewing people in the street rather than in households.
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Block design with randomly selected respondents within each block according to a coin flip.
Randomization Unit
Unit of randomization will be individual.
Was the treatment clustered?
No

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
None
Sample size: planned number of observations
240 per block for a total of 720
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Including the control there are five possible assignment for 144 per assignment.
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
No pre-existing data to conduct power analysis.
Supporting Documents and Materials

Documents

Document Name
Hypotheses
Document Type
other
Document Description
This document states hypotheses to be tested after data is collected.
File
Hypotheses

MD5: fe4d850d6efb945beebccd4d6b132c29

SHA1: 7bf1b06c03940d703cae9a38feb426264e074cc1

Uploaded At: September 18, 2021

IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Bucknell University Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
2021-09-19
IRB Approval Number
2122-025

Post-Trial

Post Trial Information

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Intervention

Is the intervention completed?
No
Data Collection Complete
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?
No

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials