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The impact of gender perceptions on gender discriminatory practices in agricultural extension activities: A field experiment in Kenya

Last registered on May 16, 2022


Trial Information

General Information

The impact of gender perceptions on gender discriminatory practices in agricultural extension activities: A field experiment in Kenya
Initial registration date
May 15, 2022

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 16, 2022, 5:21 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


Primary Investigator

Wageningen University and Research

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
International Food Policy Research Institute
PI Affiliation
Wageningen University and Research

Additional Trial Information

On going
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
The agricultural sector provides plenty of opportunities to improve female farmers’ livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa. Still, in many countries, the sector is also characterised by gender biases in various forms and diverse areas, even when men and women farmers share comparable abilities. This study investigates the existing gender (social) norms that inform the construction of gender roles in society, allocating “passive” positions to women farmers. In particular, this study focuses on the influence of these social norms in the context of agricultural extension activities. Social norms ingrained in individual beliefs and preferences can influence how individuals respond to information dependent on the gender of extension agents. Through a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Kenya, this study ascertains how shared societal norms encourage gender discrimination in village agricultural extension activities. Additionally, it explores if edutainment on gender roles can influence gender perceptions concerning female village extension service providers.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Aju, Stellamaris, Berber Kramer and Marrit van den Berg. 2022. "The impact of gender perceptions on gender discriminatory practices in agricultural extension activities: A field experiment in Kenya." AEA RCT Registry. May 16.
Experimental Details


An edutainment on gender is introduced to the treatment group of the farmers only. This is a gender video message that informs the farmers on the importance of joint decision-making, debunking gender stereotypes, and addressing intimate partner violence. This video will be recorded as an episode of a popular television drama series called “Shamba Shape-up,” which the farmers are familiar with. This gives a mix of entertainment combined with educational messages hence, an edutainment. The popularity of this show also increases the credibility of the video message. The video will not be displayed on the television show until after the data for this study has been collected. Farmers will be organised in groups to watch this video. Assuming no observed differences in the mean test scores between male and female champion farmers, such aggregated results will be reflected in the video. This will give the farmers insights into what is obtainable in their contexts. If the test scores reflect differences in retentive abilities, the results are not included in the video content.
This video will be displayed to the farmers in May 2022. This gives the farmers some time to change their attitudes and perceptions towards the female champion farmers (assuming gender bias from inception), and utilise the recommendations offered by the female champions on their fields. We will look at the immediate and field effects of video exposure for farmers, and a further impact for farmers in the female-championed and male-championed communities.
Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
1. Knowledge test performance of champion farmers.
2. Difference in gender bias between the treatment and control group (% of total male recommendations considered correct - % of total female recommendations considered correct).
3. Farmers' adoption of agricultural recommendations from champion farmers.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
1. The difference between male and female champions’ level of effort in teaching and learning extension messages.
2. Difference in farmers’ training attendance in male and female champion communities.
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
See the pre-analysis plan attached
Experimental Design Details
Randomization Method
Computer (Stata) randomisation package
Randomization Unit
Champion farmer level randomisation
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
162 champion farmers
Sample size: planned number of observations
3,060 farmers
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
1,654 - total farmers in the treatment group
1,406 - total farmers in the control group
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
See the pre-analysis plan attached

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Maseno University Ethics Review Committee
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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Post Trial Information

Study Withdrawal

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Is the intervention completed?
Intervention Completion Date
June 10, 2022, 12:00 +00:00
Data Collection Complete
Data Collection Completion Date
June 10, 2022, 12:00 +00:00
Final Sample Size: Number of Clusters (Unit of Randomization)
139 Champion Farmers
Was attrition correlated with treatment status?
Final Sample Size: Total Number of Observations
1,703 farmers
Final Sample Size (or Number of Clusters) by Treatment Arms
771 farmers in control communities and 932 farmers in treatment communities
Data Publication

Data Publication

Is public data available?

Program Files

Program Files
Reports, Papers & Other Materials

Relevant Paper(s)

Reports & Other Materials