What’s in the Name? Volunteer and Employment Opportunities in Egypt

Last registered on May 29, 2024


Trial Information

General Information

What’s in the Name? Volunteer and Employment Opportunities in Egypt
Initial registration date
May 22, 2024

Initial registration date is when the trial was registered.

It corresponds to when the registration was submitted to the Registry to be reviewed for publication.

First published
May 29, 2024, 1:39 PM EDT

First published corresponds to when the trial was first made public on the Registry after being reviewed.


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Primary Investigator

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Washington State Employment Security Department
PI Affiliation
Maastricht University

Additional Trial Information

In development
Start date
End date
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial does not extend or rely on any prior RCTs.
Female labor force participation in Egypt is among the lowest in the world, due, in part, to social norms that restrict what activities women can do outside of their homes. While in our study area only 17% believe that women should be allowed to work as an employee, 52% are supportive of women working as a volunteer even though volunteers receive financial compensation. In this project, we will visit 7,500 households and encourage women to apply for work opportunities that are either referred to as “employment” or as “volunteering” but otherwise have the same job characteristics, including compensation, hours and contract. In addition to randomizing the name of the work opportunity across 500 geographically distant agglomerations, we will randomize at the household level whether we target women only or whether we also involve other household members in order to better understand household decision making and how to alleviate constraints to women’s work out of the home. After comparing application behavior across these four treatment arms, we will randomize work opportunities among applicants. This will allow us to estimate the impact of working on the female applicants and their families, and compare work performance and satisfaction across treatment arms.
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Feld, Brian, Marieke Kleemans and Abdelrahman Nagy. 2024. "What’s in the Name? Volunteer and Employment Opportunities in Egypt." AEA RCT Registry. May 29. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.13670-1.0
Experimental Details


Intervention Start Date
Intervention End Date

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
Research question 1: Application behavior
Research question 2: Impact on women and her household including on household consumption, household assets, household decision making, labor market outcomes, social norms, and physical and phychological wellbeing.
Research question 3: Work performance and satisfaction
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
In this study, we will offer opportunities for women to work as either an employee or volunteer, in geographically distinct areas that are randomized into “employment” and “volunteering” agglomerations. Other than the name of the work opportunity, we will keep everything else constant, including compensation, contract, work schedule, and activities. All work opportunities will be offered by our implementing partner, Life Makers, who aims to recruit women to carry out a large development project in Sohag. Our research study centers around the recruitment of these workers. This NGO works with both employees and volunteers to implement their projects, making this a natural setting to randomly vary the form of contracting between “volunteers” and “employees.”

In addition to the importance of the contract type, our pilot study suggests that women may need approval from other housheld members to apply for a work opportunity. When encouraged to apply during the pilot, 30% of the eligible women stated that they didn’t want to apply to work for the NGO because they believed their father or husband would not approve of it. Therefore, in addition to varying the name of the work opportunity, we aim to further understand the household decision-making process by randomizing whom we target in our encouragement messages. In our “Women Only” treatment arm, we will direct our encouragement messaging to the women only, while in the “Women Plus” treatment arm, we will encourage her to invite other household members to be present because they may have influence over her decision to apply for the work opportunity. This randomization will be carried out at the household level and will be implemented in both the Volunteering and Employment agglomerations. As such, there will be 4 treatment arms: 1. Volunteering with Women Only, 2. Volunteering with Women Plus, 3. Employment with Women Only, and 4. Employment with Women Plus.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization of agglomeration is done in office by a computer. Randomization of households is done in the field by tablets belonging to enumerators.
Randomization Unit
There are two levels of randomization: first at the agglomeration level and then at the household level.
Was the treatment clustered?

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
500 agglomerations
Sample size: planned number of observations
7,500 households
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
250 volunteering agglomerations and 250 employment agglomerations
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Please refer to PAP for details

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
IRB Approval Date
IRB Approval Number
Analysis Plan

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