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Evaluating smallholder livelihoods and sustainability in Indonesian cocoa value chains
Last registered on May 08, 2017

Pre-Trial

Trial Information
General Information
Title
Evaluating smallholder livelihoods and sustainability in Indonesian cocoa value chains
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0002092
Initial registration date
May 08, 2017
Last updated
May 08, 2017 1:29 PM EDT
Location(s)

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Primary Investigator
Affiliation
University of Sydney
Other Primary Investigator(s)
PI Affiliation
University of Sydney
PI Affiliation
University of Sydney
Additional Trial Information
Status
In development
Start date
2017-05-13
End date
2019-12-31
Secondary IDs
Abstract
This project will assess the impacts of (1) providing cocoa farmers in Sumatra, Indonesia, with a sustainability program, through a randomised control trial (RCT) design, and (2) the impacts of sustainability certification on cocoa farmers, through a regression discontinuity design (RDD). The farmers will be recruited in 4 cohorts from 2017-2019. The intervention and baseline survey for cohort 1 will launch in mid-May, 2017, and subsequent cohorts will roll out over the intervening period. Variables of interest include certification outcomes (knowledge and participation in schemes), farm-level outcomes (yield, productivity, farm practices), household-level outcomes (revenues, socio-economic outcomes such as health, education and living conditions), and farmer group and community level variables.
External Link(s)
Registration Citation
Citation
Nielson, Jeffrey, Russell Toth and Russell Toth. 2017. "Evaluating smallholder livelihoods and sustainability in Indonesian cocoa value chains." AEA RCT Registry. May 08. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.2092-1.0.
Former Citation
Nielson, Jeffrey, Russell Toth and Russell Toth. 2017. "Evaluating smallholder livelihoods and sustainability in Indonesian cocoa value chains." AEA RCT Registry. May 08. https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/2092/history/17439.
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details
Interventions
Intervention(s)
The study will evaluate the impacts of a well-established sustainability and productivity training program that is being implemented by a leading NGO in the cocoa sector in Indonesia.
Intervention Start Date
2017-05-15
Intervention End Date
2019-06-30
Primary Outcomes
Primary Outcomes (end points)
Improved farm performance and livelihoods of cocoa farmers in North Aceh who participated in SCPP program, with primary focus on (1) cocoa farm performance (i.e., cocoa yields), (2) cocoa revenue and profit, (3) household income.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)
Cocoa profit will be constructed by subtracting cocoa farm expenses (labour, inputs, etc), from cocoa revenue.

Household income will be constructed by a couple methods: (1) direct question on overall household income, (2) summation over sub-categories of HH income (farm and non-farm income, and other sources of income).
Secondary Outcomes
Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
Experimental Design
Experimental Design
The treatment villages will be randomly selected into four cohorts for successive treatment over 2017-2019 from a candidate set of villages identified with the implementation partner.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done in office by a computer.
Randomization Unit
Village-level
Was the treatment clustered?
Yes
Experiment Characteristics
Sample size: planned number of clusters
68 villages
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,360 cocoa farmers and 68 heads of village
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
First cohort 2017: 1 treatment cohort (19 villages), 3 control cohorts (49 villages)
Second cohort 2017: 2 treatment cohorts (36 villages), 2 control cohorts (32 villages)
2018: 3 treatment cohorts (51 villages), 1 control cohort (17 villages)
2019: 4 treatment cohorts (68 villages)
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Based on following power calculation (using clustersampsi in Stata), we calculate a detectable effect of 122.57 kg in cocoa yield. Implementing partner has told us we can expect an effect of 254 kg (a 75% increase in yield on a baseline average of 339.0 kg of coca). mean 1: 339.00 standard deviation 1: 348.00 significance level: 0.05 power: 0.90 baseline measures adjustment (correlation): 0.00 average cluster size: 20 number of clusters per arm: 32 coefficient of variation (of cluster sizes): 0.00 intra cluster correlation (ICC): 0.14 clustersampsi estimated parameters: Firstly, under individual randomisation: detectable difference: 63.06 If, trying to detect an increasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: 402.06 If, trying to detect a decreasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: 275.94 Then, allowing for cluster randomisation: design effect: 3.66 detectable difference: 122.57 If, trying to detect an increasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: 461.57 If, trying to detect a decreasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: 216.43 We do not have good baseline data on other outcomes of interest (income, revenues, profits) to make similar calculations in levels. In terms of standard deviations, we can detect a 0.35 standard deviation effect size in the other outcomes. mean 1: 0.00 standard deviation 1: 1.00 significance level: 0.05 power: 0.90 baseline measures adjustment (correlation): 0.00 average cluster size: 20 number of clusters per arm: 32 coefficient of variation (of cluster sizes): 0.00 intra cluster correlation (ICC): 0.14 clustersampsi estimated parameters: Firstly, under individual randomisation: detectable difference: 0.18 If, trying to detect an increasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: 0.18 If, trying to detect a decreasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: -0.18 Then, allowing for cluster randomisation: design effect: 3.66 detectable difference: 0.35 If, trying to detect an increasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: 0.35 If, trying to detect a decreasing outcome then: corresponding mean 2: -0.35
Supporting Documents and Materials

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IRB
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS (IRBs)
IRB Name
University of Sydney Human Ethics
IRB Approval Date
2013-07-02
IRB Approval Number
2013/451