Our baseline measure of mindset and intervention come from prior work by Yeager et al 2016 (Journal of Educational Psychology). We translated the intervention into Norwegian and adapted for the context we study. The treatment condition exposes students to growth mindset through online reading and writing exercises. These exercises focus on (1) how intellectual abilities are malleable and accordingly how the brain can grow and change, (2) how to cope with confusion and difficulty, (3) how hardwork on challenging exercises improves the neural connections in one’s brain, and (4) how personal goals can give purpose and relevance to motivate effort in difficult tasks (Yeager et al. 2014). The control condition has analogous activities, which teach students facts about memory and brain functioning, but does not address the malleability of intellectual ability. Students participate in two mindset interventions administered roughly two weeks apart.
A month after the initial mindset treatment, we administer a battery of behavioral metrics which rely on methods from experimental economics. These metrics include confidence and overconfidence, risk preferences, time preferences, and perceptions of the costs of effort.