Secondary Outcomes (explanation)
1. Helping with household chores
We will also use data from the existing RCT endline survey regarding time spent doing household chores to see whether students in treatment groups are more helpful to their families. Student’s own assessment of minutes spent helping parents with household chores or outside work per day (average over last week).
The sum of minutes will be reported by the participant for the following household activities: cooking, cleaning up the house, bringing clean water to your house, bringing groceries from a hut or Bazar, helping siblings to study, farming or gardening, parent’s income-generating activities (e.g., fishing, tailoring, etc.), other income-generating activities to support their family.
The specific survey question asks: “Do you help with [activity]? If yes, how much time in a day (average over last week)? [Answer: in minutes]”
2. Dimensions of volunteer attitude
We will use the four dimensions from “Bales Volunteerism Activism scale” to analyze the underlying features that create active volunteer attitude and see whether treatment group students score higher in any of the dimensions. According to the scale there are four clear dimensions which make up the active volunteer attitude. We will average scores on the five items of each dimension to obtain the score for each respondent. The scale has the following dimensions:
2.1. A sense of effectiveness
The perception of personal efficacy, control, and significance in tackling social issues is reflected in specific questions (b, c, f, m, p). Example: Potential volunteers will have very strong negative reaction to the statement, “Anything I do can’t really change the world’s problems.” This suggests that these respondents place great importance on their ability to make a profound impact in addressing societal challenges.
2.2. Sociability and generability
The perception that volunteer priorities global issues alongside their personal commitments. This is reflected in specific questions (d, h, j, o, r, t). For instance, potential volunteers will strongly disagree with the statement, “People with ordinary lives don’t feel the need to get heavily involved in social causes.”
2.3. Idealism or philosophical commitment
This demonstrates the inclination to make sacrifices for the betterment of society and their perception that addressing significant challenges involves incurring real costs. It is evident in the responses to specific questions (e, g, I, k, n). For instance, potential volunteers will strongly agree with statements such as “There will be peace only when there is justice”.
2.4 The ‘feel good’ factor
This dimension suggests that the potential volunteers believe that their actions not only benefit others but also contribute to their own personal growth and fulfillment. It is reflected in the responses to specific questions (a, 1, q, s). Potential volunteers will show a highly positive reaction to statements such as “The more you put into life, the more you will get out of it” and “I know that when I’m working to help others, I’m also helping myself.”
3. Motivation to volunteer
Motivation to volunteer will be measured using the ‘Volunteer Functions Inventory’ (VFI) (Clary et al., 1998) (Table A2 ), which has been applied widely in the volunteering literature. There are 30 questions in the scale which consists of a set of six motivational functions served by volunteerism. Students will indicate to what extent each motive influences their decision to volunteer using the 7-point scale provided. The scale ranges from 1 ‘not at all important/accurate’ to 7 ‘extremely important/accurate’. Scale scores result from averaging scores on the five items of each motivational function, so that individuals’ scores on each scale can range from 1 to 7; higher score will reflect greater importance of the motivation.
Engaging in volunteer service can serve the purpose of providing individuals with opportunities to express their values associated with altruism and humanitarian concerns for others. The factor ’Value’ is reflected in question no. 3, 8, 16, 19 and 22.
Volunteering can fulfill is providing individuals with opportunities for new learning experiences and the chance to apply and develop their knowledge, skills, and abilities that might otherwise remain untrained. The factor ‘Understanding’ is reflected in question no 12, 14, 18, 25 and 30.
Another significant function served by volunteering revolves around motivations related to relationships with others. By engaging in volunteer work, individuals can strengthen social connections, seek approval from significant others, and derive satisfaction from contributing to the well-being of others within their social networks. The factor ’Social’ is reflected in question no. 2, 4, 6, 17 and 23.
Volunteering is related to career-related benefits that individuals can obtain through their participation in volunteer work. By engaging in volunteer activities, individuals can gain valuable experience, develop transferable skills, and enhance their professional networks, all of which can contribute to their career advancement and growth. The factor ‘Career’ is reflected in question no. 1, 10, 15, 21, 28.
This function revolves around safeguarding the ego from negative aspects of the self. In the context of volunteerism, these motivations may serve to remove guilt over being more fortunate than others and to address one’s personal issues. By volunteering, individuals can find peace, alleviate guilt, and address personal challenges, thus providing themselves with a sense of ego protection and well-being. The factor ’Protective’ is reflected in question no. 7, 9, 11, 20 and 24.
Lastly, a sixth function proposed for volunteering roots from the recognition that the ego, particularly its relationship to affect, extends beyond protective processes. Specifically, in the case of positive mood, people engage in helping activities to maintain or enhance their positive effect. The factor ’Enhancement’ is reflected in question no. 5, 13, 26, 27 and 29.
4. Attendance in actual volunteer activities
We will record the attendance of the randomly selected registered students who were assigned volunteer work to participate in volunteer activities. We will create two participation variables. The first is a binary outcome (1 for participation, 0 for non-participation) and the second is a continuous variable on a scale of 1 to 4, reflecting the number of days of participation.