Citizen and Politician Surveys on Corruption in Italy, Brazil, and Pakistan

Last registered on October 26, 2021

Pre-Trial

Trial Information

General Information

Title
Citizen and Politician Surveys on Corruption in Italy, Brazil, and Pakistan
RCT ID
AEARCTR-0008331
Initial registration date
October 25, 2021
Last updated
October 26, 2021, 3:12 PM EDT

Locations

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Primary Investigator

Affiliation
Boston University

Other Primary Investigator(s)

PI Affiliation
Boston University
PI Affiliation
European University Institute
PI Affiliation
London School of Economics and Political Science

Additional Trial Information

Status
In development
Start date
2021-10-25
End date
2022-03-01
Secondary IDs
Prior work
This trial is based on or builds upon one or more prior RCTs.
Abstract
We survey 1,000-1,500 adult citizens, the universe of subnational legislators, and the universe of national legislators in Brazil, Italy, and Pakistan to study their views about corruption. Using vignettes, we probe the trade-offs they think politicians should and would make between efficiency and corruption and between equity and corruption. We also solicit views about how corrupt politicians are believed to be. By sending the same survey to citizens and elected legislators, we are able to explore how their views differ. An experimental component of the survey studies the willingness to waste money and/or engage in a trivial lie in order to obtain an ego-rent (in this case, a certificate reporting a substantial donation on behalf of the respondent to a charity of his or her choice).
External Link(s)

Registration Citation

Citation
Ferroni, Matteo Francesco et al. 2021. "Citizen and Politician Surveys on Corruption in Italy, Brazil, and Pakistan." AEA RCT Registry. October 26. https://doi.org/10.1257/rct.8331-1.0
Sponsors & Partners

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Experimental Details

Interventions

Intervention(s)
We elicit respondents' views about corruption and we explore the trade-offs they think politicians should and would make between efficiency and corruption and between equity and corruption. Using a randomized experiment, we study the respondents' willingness to waste money and/or engage in a trivial lie to obtain an ego-rent.

We collect a representative citizen sample along the gender, income, and age dimensions in Italy, Brazil, and Pakistan.
The survey will also be sent to all first-level subdivision politicians of these three countries and to all national legislators.
Intervention Start Date
2021-10-25
Intervention End Date
2022-03-01

Primary Outcomes

Primary Outcomes (end points)
We are interested in i) perceptions about corruption in the respondent's own country across the political spectrum; ii) trade-offs between efficiency and corruption; iii) trade-offs between equity and corruption; iv) willingness to waste money for ego-gratification; v) willingness to lie for ego-gratification; vi) whether respondents who are willing to lie are also more tolerant of corruption.

All these outcomes will be collected both for citizens and politicians of the three countries surveyed.
Primary Outcomes (explanation)

Secondary Outcomes

Secondary Outcomes (end points)
Secondary Outcomes (explanation)

Experimental Design

Experimental Design
We will randomize the information provided to the respondents about the cost of producing a certificate reporting their donation to a charity of their choice.

The control group will be informed that the production cost of €60 will be covered by the researchers; therefore their donation will be €1,000 and this is what the certificate will state.

Treatment group 1 will be informed that if they ask for the certificate, the production cost of €60 will be covered using part of the donation money. Therefore their donation will be €940 and this is what the certificate will state.

Treatment group 2 will be informed that if they ask for the certificate, the production cost of €60 will be covered using part of the donation money. Therefore their donation will be €940 but the certificate will state that they donated €1,000.

We also randomize the questions' order. The order randomization will divide respondents in two groups.
Respondents assigned to Order 1 will first answer to the vignette questions eliciting trade-offs between equity/efficiency and corruption, then to the questions on redistribution policy preferences, then to the questions on corruption, and finally to the questions on trust.
Respondents assigned to Order 2 will start with the question on trust, then the vignettes, then the questions on redistribution policy preferences, and finally the questions on corruption.
Experimental Design Details
Not available
Randomization Method
Randomization done by a computer
Randomization Unit
Individual
Was the treatment clustered?
No

Experiment Characteristics

Sample size: planned number of clusters
0
Sample size: planned number of observations
1,000 citizens in Italy contacted online 1,000 citizens in Brazil contacted online 500 citizens in Pakistan contacted online 1,000 citizens in Pakistan contacted in person The survey will be sent to 917 regional politicians in Italy, 1001 state-level politicians in Brazil, and 676 provincial-level politicians in Pakistan. The final number of politicians surveyed will depend on their response rates. A second round of surveying will solicit all national legislators in the lower house in Brazil (513), Pakistan (342), and Italy (630). The final number of politicians surveyed will depend on their response rates.
Sample size (or number of clusters) by treatment arms
Italian sample:
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 1
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 1
166 citizens assigned to the control group, order 1
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 2
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 2
166 citizens assigned to the control group, order 2

Brazilian sample:
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 1
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 1
166 citizens assigned to the control group, order 1
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 2
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 2
166 citizens assigned to the control group, order 2

Pakistan online sample:
83 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 1
83 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 1
84 citizens assigned to the control group, order 1
83 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 2
83 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 2
84 citizens assigned to the control group, order 2

Pakistan in person sample:
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 1
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 1
166 citizens assigned to the control group, order 1
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 1, order 2
167 citizens assigned to Treatment 2, order 2
166 citizens assigned to the control group, order 2

Politicians sample (for all countries):
1/6 of politicians assigned to Treatment 1, order 1
1/6 of politicians assigned to Treatment 2, order 1
1/6 of politicians assigned to the control group, order 1
1/6 of politicians assigned to Treatment 1, order 2
1/6 of politicians assigned to Treatment 2, order 2
1/6 of politicians assigned to the control group, order 2
Minimum detectable effect size for main outcomes (accounting for sample design and clustering)
Supporting Documents and Materials

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IRB

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)

IRB Name
Boston University Charles River Campus Institutional Review Board
IRB Approval Date
2021-09-22
IRB Approval Number
6193X
Analysis Plan

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